|Distinct pathways regulate proapoptotic Nix and BNip3 in cardiac stress.|
Gálvez, Anita S, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 281: 1442-8 (2006)
Up-regulation of myocardial Nix and BNip3 is associated with apoptosis in cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia, respectively. To identify mechanisms of gene regulation for these critical cardiac apoptosis effectors, the determinants of Nix and BNip3 promoter activation were elucidated by luciferase reporter gene expression in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. BNip3 transcription was increased by hypoxia but not by phenylephrine (10 microM), angiotensin II (100 nM), or isoproterenol (10 microM). In contrast, Nix transcription was increased by phenylephrine but not by isoproterenol, angiotensin II, or hypoxia. Since phenylephrine stimulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via protein kinase C (PKC), the effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 10 nM for 24 h) and adenoviral PKC expression were assessed. PMA and PKC alpha, but not PKC epsilon or dominant negative PKC alpha, increased Nix transcription. Multiple Nix promoter GC boxes bound transcription factor Sp-1, and basal and PMA- or PKC alpha-stimulated Nix promoter activity was suppressed by mithramycin inhibition of Sp1-DNA interactions. In vivo determinants of Nix expression were evaluated in Nix promoter-luciferase (NixP) transgenic mice that underwent ischemia-reperfusion (1 h/24 h), transverse aortic coarctation (TAC), or cross-breeding with the G(q) overexpression model of hypertrophy. Luciferase activity increased in G alpha(q)-NixP hearts 3.2 +/- 0.4-fold and in TAC hearts 2.8 +/- 0.4-fold but did not increase with infarction-reperfusion. NixP activity was proportional to the extent of TAC hypertrophy and was inhibited by mithramycin. These studies revealed distinct mechanisms of transcriptional regulation for cardiac Nix and BNip3. BNip3 is hypoxia-inducible, whereas Nix expression was induced by G alpha(q)-mediated hypertrophic stimuli. PKC alpha, a G(q) effector, transduced Nix transcriptional induction via Sp1.
|Repression of the Arf tumor suppressor by E2F3 is required for normal cell cycle kinetics.|
Aslanian, A; Iaquinta, PJ; Verona, R; Lees, JA
Genes & development
Tumor development is dependent upon the inactivation of two key tumor-suppressor networks, p16(Ink4a)-cycD/cdk4-pRB-E2F and p19(Arf)-mdm2-p53, that regulate cellular proliferation and the tumor surveillance response. These networks are known to intersect with one another, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that E2F directly participates in the transcriptional control of Arf in both normal and transformed cells. This occurs in a manner that is significantly different from the regulation of classic E2F-responsive targets. In wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), the Arf promoter is occupied by E2F3 and not other E2F family members. In quiescent cells, this role is largely fulfilled by E2F3b, an E2F3 isoform whose function was previously undetermined. E2f3 loss is sufficient to derepress Arf, triggering activation of p53 and expression of p21(Cip1). Thus, E2F3 is a key repressor of the p19(Arf)-p53 pathway in normal cells. Consistent with this notion, Arf mutation suppresses the activation of p53 and p21(Cip1) in E2f3-deficient MEFs. Arf loss also rescues the known cell cycle re-entry defect of E2f3(-/-) cells, and this correlates with restoration of appropriate activation of classic E2F-responsive genes. Our data also demonstrate a direct role for E2F in the oncogenic activation of Arf. Specifically, we observe recruitment of the endogenous activating E2Fs, E2F1, and E2F3a, to the Arf promoter. Thus, distinct E2F complexes directly contribute to the normal repression and oncogenic activation of Arf. We propose that monitoring of E2F levels and/or activity is a key component of Arf's ability to respond to inappropriate, but not normal cellular proliferation.Full Text Article