|MEK1,2 response element mediates angiotensin II-stimulated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter activation.|
Chen, Hong-Chi and Feener, Edward P
Blood, 103: 2636-44 (2004)
The MEK1,2 (MAPK/ERK kinase 1 and 2) pathway mediates the up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells by a variety of hormones, including angiotensin II. Transfection of constitutively active MEKK-1, an upstream activator of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways, was used to isolate an enhancer element located between -89 and -50 bp in PAI-1 promoter that was activated by MEKK-1 and selectively blocked by the MEK1,2 inhibitor PD98059. Mutational analysis revealed that the MEKK-1 response element (MRE) contained 2 cis-acting Sp1- and AP-1-like sequences, located between -75 to -70 and -63 to -52 bp, respectively. Overexpression of Sp1 enhanced MEKK-1-induced MRE promoter activity and a dominant-negative c-Fos blocked this Sp1 response. The combination of Sp1 and c-Jun or c-Fos was required to activate this MRE. Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation increased c-Fos, c-Jun, and Sp1 binding to the MRE by 100-, 4.9-, and 1.9-fold, respectively, and these responses were inhibited by PD98059 and AT1 receptor antagonist candesartan. Intravenous Ang II infusion in rats increased aortic c-Fos binding to the MRE. This MRE sequence mediated a 4-fold increase of MEK1,2-dependent PAI-1/luciferase mRNA expression by angiotensin II stimulation. This report identifies the MEK1,2 response element that mediates angiotensin II-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activation and shows that activation of this element requires Sp1 and AP-1 co-activation.