|A positive feedback between p53 and miR-34 miRNAs mediates tumor suppression.|
Okada, N; Lin, CP; Ribeiro, MC; Biton, A; Lai, G; He, X; Bu, P; Vogel, H; Jablons, DM; Keller, AC; Wilkinson, JE; He, B; Speed, TP; He, L
Genes & development
As bona fide p53 transcriptional targets, miR-34 microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit frequent alterations in many human tumor types and elicit multiple p53 downstream effects upon overexpression. Unexpectedly, miR-34 deletion alone fails to impair multiple p53-mediated tumor suppressor effects in mice, possibly due to the considerable redundancy in the p53 pathway. Here, we demonstrate that miR-34a represses HDM4, a potent negative regulator of p53, creating a positive feedback loop acting on p53. In a Kras-induced mouse lung cancer model, miR-34a deficiency alone does not exhibit a strong oncogenic effect. However, miR-34a deficiency strongly promotes tumorigenesis when p53 is haploinsufficient, suggesting that the defective p53-miR-34 feedback loop can enhance oncogenesis in a specific context. The importance of the p53/miR-34/HDM4 feedback loop is further confirmed by an inverse correlation between miR-34 and full-length HDM4 in human lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, human lung adenocarcinomas generate an elevated level of a short HDM4 isoform through alternative polyadenylation. This short HDM4 isoform lacks miR-34-binding sites in the 3' untranslated region (UTR), thereby evading miR-34 regulation to disable the p53-miR-34 positive feedback. Taken together, our results elucidated the intricate cross-talk between p53 and miR-34 miRNAs and revealed an important tumor suppressor effect generated by this positive feedback loop.
|Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) reduces replication stress in glioblastoma cells.|
Kig, C; Beullens, M; Beke, L; Van Eynde, A; Linders, JT; Brehmer, D; Bollen, M
The Journal of biological chemistry
Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) belongs to the subfamily of AMP-activated Ser/Thr protein kinases. The expression of MELK is very high in glioblastoma-type brain tumors, but it is not clear how this contributes to tumor growth. Here we show that the siRNA-mediated loss of MELK in U87 MG glioblastoma cells causes a G1/S phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by cell death or a senescence-like phenotype that can be rescued by the expression of siRNA-resistant MELK. This cell cycle arrest is mediated by an increased expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and is associated with the hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and the down-regulation of E2F target genes. The increased expression of p21 can be explained by the consecutive activation of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), Chk2, and p53. Intriguingly, the activation of p53 in MELK-deficient cells is not due to an increased stability of p53 but stems from the loss of MDMX (mouse double minute-X), an inhibitor of p53 transactivation. The activation of the ATM-Chk2 pathway in MELK-deficient cells is associated with the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks during replication, as demonstrated by the appearance of γH2AX foci. Replication stress in these cells is also illustrated by an increased number of stalled replication forks and a reduced fork progression speed. Our data indicate that glioblastoma cells have elevated MELK protein levels to better cope with replication stress during unperturbed S phase. Hence, MELK inhibitors hold great potential for the treatment of glioblastomas as such or in combination with DNA-damaging therapies.
|Decreased expression of miR-125b and miR-100 in oral cancer cells contributes to malignancy.|
Brian J Henson,Samsiddhi Bhattacharjee,Dawn M O'Dee,Eleanor Feingold,Susanne M Gollin
Genes, chromosomes & cancer
Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been observed in numerous malignancies, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, their role in disease is not entirely clear. Several genetic aberrations are characteristic of OSCC, with amplification of chromosomal band 11q13 and loss of distal 11q being among the most prevalent. It is not known if the expression levels of miRNAs in these regions are altered or whether they play a role in disease. We hypothesize that the expression of miRNAs mapping to 11q are altered in OSCC because of loss or amplification of chromosomal material, and that this contributes to the development and progression of OSCC. We found that miR-125b and miR-100 are down-regulated in OSCC tumor and cell lines, and that transfecting cells with exogenous miR-125b and miR-100 significantly reduced cell proliferation and modified the expression of target and nontarget genes, including some that are overexpressed in radioresistant OSCC cells. In conclusion, the down-regulation of miR-125b and miR-100 in OSCC appears to play an important role in the development and/or progression of disease and may contribute to the loss of sensitivity to ionizing radiation.Full Text Article