Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M||WB, ChIP-seq||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Antidepressant-like effect of sodium butyrate is associated with an increase in TET1 and in 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the Bdnf gene.|
Wei, Y; Melas, PA; Wegener, G; Mathé, AA; Lavebratt, C
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 18 2015
Epigenetic drugs like sodium butyrate (NaB) show antidepressant-like effects in preclinical studies, but the exact molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant effects remain unknown. While research using NaB has mainly focused on its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), there is also evidence that NaB affects DNA methylation.The purpose of this study was to examine NaB's putative antidepressant-like efficacy in relation to DNA methylation changes in the prefrontal cortex of an established genetic rat model of depression (the Flinders Sensitive Line [FSL]) and its controls (the Flinders Resistant Line).The FSL rats had lower levels of ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1), which catalyzes the conversion of DNA methylation to hydroxymethylation. As indicated by the behavioral despair test, chronic administration of NaB had antidepressant-like effects in the FSL and was accompanied by increased levels of TET1. The TET1 upregulation was also associated with an increase of hydroxymethylation and a decrease of methylation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), a gene associated with neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. These epigenetic changes were associated with a corresponding BDNF overexpression.Our data support the antidepressant efficacy of HDACis and suggest that their epigenetic effects may also include DNA methylation changes that are mediated by demethylation-facilitating enzymes like TET1.
|PRDM14 promotes active DNA demethylation through the ten-eleven translocation (TET)-mediated base excision repair pathway in embryonic stem cells.|
Okashita, N; Kumaki, Y; Ebi, K; Nishi, M; Okamoto, Y; Nakayama, M; Hashimoto, S; Nakamura, T; Sugasawa, K; Kojima, N; Takada, T; Okano, M; Seki, Y
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 269-80 2014
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). 5fC and 5caC can be excised and repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, implicating 5mC oxidation in active DNA demethylation. Genome-wide DNA methylation is erased in the transition from metastable states to the ground state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in migrating primordial germ cells (PGCs), although some resistant regions become demethylated only in gonadal PGCs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying global hypomethylation in naive ESCs and developing PGCs will be useful for realizing cellular pluripotency and totipotency. In this study, we found that PRDM14, the PR domain-containing transcriptional regulator, accelerates the TET-BER cycle, resulting in the promotion of active DNA demethylation in ESCs. Induction of Prdm14 expression transiently elevated 5hmC, followed by the reduction of 5mC at pluripotency-associated genes, germline-specific genes and imprinted loci, but not across the entire genome, which resembles the second wave of DNA demethylation observed in gonadal PGCs. PRDM14 physically interacts with TET1 and TET2 and enhances the recruitment of TET1 and TET2 at target loci. Knockdown of TET1 and TET2 impaired transcriptional regulation and DNA demethylation by PRDM14. The repression of the BER pathway by administration of pharmacological inhibitors of APE1 and PARP1 and the knockdown of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) also impaired DNA demethylation by PRDM14. Furthermore, DNA demethylation induced by PRDM14 takes place normally in the presence of aphidicolin, which is an inhibitor of G1/S progression. Together, our analysis provides mechanistic insight into DNA demethylation in naive pluripotent stem cells and developing PGCs.
|A dynamic CTCF chromatin binding landscape promotes DNA hydroxymethylation and transcriptional induction of adipocyte differentiation.|
Dubois-Chevalier, J; Oger, F; Dehondt, H; Firmin, FF; Gheeraert, C; Staels, B; Lefebvre, P; Eeckhoute, J
Nucleic acids research 42 10943-59 2014
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional transcription factor characterized by chromatin binding patterns often described as largely invariant. In this context, how CTCF chromatin recruitment and functionalities are used to promote cell type-specific gene expression remains poorly defined. Here, we show that, in addition to constitutively bound CTCF binding sites (CTS), the CTCF cistrome comprises a large proportion of sites showing highly dynamic binding patterns during the course of adipogenesis. Interestingly, dynamic CTCF chromatin binding is positively linked with changes in expression of genes involved in biological functions defining the different stages of adipogenesis. Importantly, a subset of these dynamic CTS are gained at cell type-specific regulatory regions, in line with a requirement for CTCF in transcriptional induction of adipocyte differentiation. This relates to, at least in part, CTCF requirement for transcriptional activation of both the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and its target genes. Functionally, we show that CTCF interacts with TET methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) enzymes and promotes adipogenic transcriptional enhancer DNA hydroxymethylation. Our study reveals a dynamic CTCF chromatin binding landscape required for epigenomic remodeling of enhancers and transcriptional activation driving cell differentiation.
|Suppression of TET1-dependent DNA demethylation is essential for KRAS-mediated transformation.|
Wu, BK; Brenner, C
Cell reports 9 1827-40 2014
Hypermethylation-mediated tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing is a central epigenetic alteration in RAS-dependent tumorigenesis. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes can depress DNA methylation by hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) bases to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we report that suppression of TET1 is required for KRAS-induced DNA hypermethylation and cellular transformation. In distinct nonmalignant cell lines, oncogenic KRAS promotes transformation by inhibiting TET1 expression via the ERK-signaling pathway. This reduces chromatin occupancy of TET1 at TSG promoters, lowers levels of 5hmC, and increases levels of 5mC and 5mC-dependent transcriptional silencing. Restoration of TET1 expression by ERK pathway inhibition or ectopic TET1 reintroduction in KRAS-transformed cells reactivates TSGs and inhibits colony formation. KRAS knockdown increases TET1 expression and diminishes colony-forming ability, whereas KRAS/TET1 double knockdown bypasses the KRAS dependence of KRAS-addicted cancer cells. Thus, suppression of TET1-dependent DNA demethylation is critical for KRAS-mediated transformation.
|Tet Proteins Connect the O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine Transferase Ogt to Chromatin in Embryonic Stem Cells.|
Vella, Pietro, et al.
Mol. Cell, (2013) 2013
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (Ogt) activity is essential for embryonic stem cell (ESC) viability and mouse development. Ogt is present both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of different cell types and catalyzes serine and threonine glycosylation. We have characterized the biochemical features of nuclear Ogt and identified the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins Tet1 and Tet2 as stable partners of Ogt in the nucleus of ESCs. We show at a genome-wide level that Ogt preferentially associates with Tet1 to genes promoters in close proximity of CpG-rich transcription start sites. These regions are characterized by low levels of DNA modification, suggesting a link between Tet1 and Ogt activities in regulating CpG island methylation. Finally, we show that Tet1 is required for binding of Ogt to chromatin affecting Tet1 activity. Taken together, our data characterize how O-GlcNAcylation is recruited to chromatin and interacts with the activity of 5-methylcytosine hydroxylases.
|Cell cycle-dependent turnover of 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine in mouse embryonic stem cells.|
Otani, J; Kimura, H; Sharif, J; Endo, TA; Mishima, Y; Kawakami, T; Koseki, H; Shirakawa, M; Suetake, I; Tajima, S
PloS one 8 e82961 2013
Hydroxymethylcytosine in the genome is reported to be an intermediate of demethylation. In the present study, we demonstrated that maintenance methyltransferase Dnmt1 scarcely catalyzed hemi-hydroxymethylated DNA and that the hemi-hydroxymethylated DNA was not selectively recognized by the SRA domain of Uhrf1, indicating that hydroxymethylcytosine is diluted in a replication-dependent manner. A high level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse embryonic stem cells was produced from the methylcytosine supplied mainly by de novo-type DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. The promoter regions of the HoxA gene cluster showed a high hydroxymethylation level whilst the methylcytosine level was quite low, suggesting that methylated CpG is actively hydroxylated during proliferation. All the results indicate that removal and production of hydroxymethylcytosine are regulated in replication-dependent manners in mouse embryonic stem cells.
|Ten-eleven translocation 1 (Tet1) is regulated by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (Ogt) for target gene repression in mouse embryonic stem cells.|
Shi, FT; Kim, H; Lu, W; He, Q; Liu, D; Goodell, MA; Wan, M; Songyang, Z
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 20776-84 2013
As a member of the Tet (Ten-eleven translocation) family proteins that can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), Tet1 has been implicated in regulating global DNA demethylation and gene expression. Tet1 is highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells and appears primarily to repress developmental genes for maintaining pluripotency. To understand how Tet1 may regulate gene expression, we conducted large scale immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry of endogenous Tet1 in mouse ES cells. We found that Tet1 could interact with multiple chromatin regulators, including Sin3A and NuRD complexes. In addition, we showed that Tet1 could also interact with the O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt) and be O-GlcNAcylated. Depletion of Ogt led to reduced Tet1 and 5hmC levels on Tet1-target genes, whereas ectopic expression of wild-type but not enzymatically inactive Ogt increased Tet1 levels. Mutation of the putative O-GlcNAcylation site on Tet1 led to decreased O-GlcNAcylation and level of the Tet1 protein. Our results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation can positively regulate Tet1 protein concentration and indicate that Tet1-mediated 5hmC modification and target repression is controlled by Ogt.
|Enhancer transcribed RNAs arise from hypomethylated, Tet-occupied genomic regions.|
Pulakanti, K; Pinello, L; Stelloh, C; Blinka, S; Allred, J; Milanovich, S; Kiblawi, S; Peterson, J; Wang, A; Yuan, GC; Rao, S
Epigenetics 8 1303-20 2013
Enhancers are cis-acting elements capable of regulating transcription in a distance and orientation-independent manner. A subset of enhancers are occupied by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and transcribed to produce long non-coding RNAs termed eRNAs. We thoroughly investigated the association between eRNA productivity and various chromatin marks and transcriptional regulators in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through an integrative approach. We found that eRNA-producing enhancers exhibited elevated levels of the active mark H3K27Ac, decreased DNA methylation, and enrichment for the DNA hydroxylase Tet1. Many eRNA-producing enhancers have recently been characterized as "super-enhancers," suggesting an important role in the maintenance of pluripotency. Using experimental methods, we focally investigated a well-characterized enhancer linked to the Nanog locus and confirmed its exclusive eRNA productivity in ESCs. We further demonstrate that the binding of Sall4 and Tet family proteins were required for eRNA productivity at this locus. Collectively, we demonstrate that Tet1 binding and DNA hypomethylation are hallmarks of eRNA production.
|Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 homodimerization rapidly reduces transcription of the pluripotency gene Nanog without dissociation of activating transcription factors.|
Santostefano, KE; Hamazaki, T; Pardo, CE; Kladde, MP; Terada, N
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 30507-17 2012
Nanog or Gata6-positive cells co-exist and are convertible within the inner cell mass of murine blastocysts and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Previous studies demonstrate fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) triggers Nanog gene down-regulation and differentiation to primitive endoderm (PE); however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for reversible and fluctuating cell fate are poorly understood. Using an inducible FGFR2 dimerization system in ES cells, we demonstrate that FGFR2 activation rapidly down-regulated Nanog gene transcription through activation of the Mek pathway and subsequently differentiated ES cells into PE cells. FGFR2 rather selectively repressed the Nanog gene with minimal effect on other pluripotency genes, including Oct4 and Sox2. We determined the Nanog promoter region containing minimum Oct4/Sox2 binding sites was sufficient for this transcriptional down-regulation by FGFR2, when the reporter transgenes were integrated with insulators. Of interest, FGFR2-mediated Nanog transcriptional reduction occurred without dissociation of RNA polymerase II, p300, Oct4, Sox2, and Tet1 from the Nanog proximal promoter region and with no increase in repressive histone methylation marks or DNA methylation, implying the gene repression is in the early and transient phase. Furthermore, addition of a specific FGFR inhibitor readily reversed this Nanog repression status. These findings illustrate well how FGFR2 induces rapid but reversible Nanog repression within ES cells.
|Dynamic hydroxymethylation of deoxyribonucleic acid marks differentiation-associated enhancers.|
Sérandour, Aurélien A, et al.
Nucleic acids research, (2012) 2012
Enhancers are developmentally controlled transcriptional regulatory regions whose activities are modulated through histone modifications or histone variant deposition. In this study, we show by genome-wide mapping that the newly discovered deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is dynamically associated with transcription factor binding to distal regulatory sites during neural differentiation of mouse P19 cells and during adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Functional annotation reveals that regions gaining 5hmC are associated with genes expressed either in neural tissues when P19 cells undergo neural differentiation or in adipose tissue when 3T3-L1 cells undergo adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, distal regions gaining 5hmC together with H3K4me2 and H3K27ac in P19 cells behave as differentiation-dependent transcriptional enhancers. Identified regions are enriched in motifs for transcription factors regulating specific cell fates such as Meis1 in P19 cells and PPARγ in 3T3-L1 cells. Accordingly, a fraction of hydroxymethylated Meis1 sites were associated with a dynamic engagement of the 5-methylcytosine hydroxylase Tet1. In addition, kinetic studies of cytosine hydroxymethylation of selected enhancers indicated that DNA hydroxymethylation is an early event of enhancer activation. Hence, acquisition of 5hmC in cell-specific distal regulatory regions may represent a major event of enhancer progression toward an active state and participate in selective activation of tissue-specific genes.
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