Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, Av, Xn||ICC, IP, WB, ChIP||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Myc (rabbit immunoaffinity purified IgG) - DAM1437269||DAM1437269|
|Anti-Myc - 2383526||2383526|
|Anti-Myc - 0702051574||0702051574|
|Anti-Myc - 16475||16475|
|Anti-Myc - 17068||17068|
|Anti-Myc - 18304||18304|
|Anti-Myc - 18702||18702|
|Anti-Myc - 2000846||2000846|
|Anti-Myc - 2040538||2040538|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor receptor/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin axis targets colorectal cancer stem cells by attenuating mevalonate-isoprenoid pathway in vitro and in vivo.|
Sharon, C; Baranwal, S; Patel, NJ; Rodriguez-Agudo, D; Pandak, WM; Majumdar, AP; Krystal, G; Patel, BB
Oncotarget 6 15332-47 2015
We observed a co-upregulation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) [InAT] axis and the mevalonate-isoprenoid biosynthesis (MIB) pathways in colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) in an unbiased approach. Hence, we hypothesized that the InAT axis might regulate the MIB pathway to govern colorectal CSCs growth. Stimulation (IGF-1) or inhibition (IGF-1R depletion and pharmacological inhibition of IGF-1R/mTOR) of the InAT axis produced induction or attenuation of CSC growth as well as expression of CSC markers and self-renewal factors respectively. Intriguingly, activation of the InAT axis (IGF-1) caused significant upregulation of the MIB pathway genes (both mRNA and protein); while its inhibition produced the opposite effects in colonospheres. More importantly, supplementation with dimethylallyl- and farnesyl-PP, MIB metabolites downstream of isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase (IDI), but not mevalonate and isopentenyl-pp that are upstream of IDI, resulted in a near-complete reversal of the suppressive effect of the InAT axis inhibitors on CSCs growth. The latter findings suggest a specific regulation of the MIB pathway by the InAT axis distal to the target of statins that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Effects of IGF-1R inhibition on colonic CSCs proliferation and the MIB pathway were confirmed in an 'in vivo' HCT-116 xenograft model. These observations establish a novel mechanistic link between the InAT axis that is commonly deregulated in colorectal cancer and the MIB pathway in regulation of colonic CSCs growth. Hence, the InAT-MIB corridor is a novel target for developing paradigm shifting optimum anti-CSCs therapies for colorectal cancer.
|Identification of c-MYC SUMOylation by mass spectrometry.|
Kalkat, M; Chan, PK; Wasylishen, AR; Srikumar, T; Kim, SS; Ponzielli, R; Bazett-Jones, DP; Raught, B; Penn, LZ
PloS one 9 e115337 2014
The c-MYC transcription factor is a master regulator of many cellular processes and deregulation of this oncogene has been linked to more than 50% of all cancers. This deregulation can take many forms, including altered post-translational regulation. Here, using immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry, we identified a MYC SUMOylation site (K326). Abrogation of signaling through this residue by substitution with arginine (K326R) has no obvious effects on MYC half-life, intracellular localization, transcriptional targets, nor on the biological effects of MYC overexpression in two different cell systems assessed for soft agar colony formation, proliferation, and apoptosis. While we have definitively demonstrated that MYC SUMOylation can occur on K326, future work will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms and biological significance of MYC regulation by SUMOylation.
|Oncogenic protein MTBP interacts with MYC to promote tumorigenesis.|
Grieb, BC; Gramling, MW; Arrate, MP; Chen, X; Beauparlant, SL; Haines, DS; Xiao, H; Eischen, CM
Cancer research 74 3591-602 2014
Despite its involvement in most human cancers, MYC continues to pose a challenge as a readily tractable therapeutic target. Here we identify the MYC transcriptional cofactors TIP48 and TIP49 and MYC as novel binding partners of Mdm2-binding protein (MTBP), a functionally undefined protein that we show is oncogenic and overexpressed in many human cancers. MTBP associated with MYC at promoters and increased MYC-mediated transcription, proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and tumor development. In breast cancer specimens, we determined overexpression of both MYC and MTBP was associated with a reduction in 10-year patient survival compared with MYC overexpression alone. MTBP was also frequently co-amplified with MYC in many human cancers. Mechanistic investigations implicated associations with TIP48/TIP49 as well as MYC in MTBP function in cellular transformation and the growth of human breast cancer cells. Taken together, our findings show MTBP functions with MYC to promote malignancy, identifying this protein as a novel general therapeutic target in human cancer.
|CUL4A contributes to the biology of basal-like breast tumors through modulation of cell growth and antitumor immune response.|
Saucedo-Cuevas, LP; Ruppen, I; Ximénez-Embún, P; Domingo, S; Gayarre, J; Muñoz, J; Silva, JM; García, MJ; Benítez, J
Oncotarget 5 2330-43 2014
The CUL4A E3 ubiquitin ligase is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes and its amplification and/or overexpression has been observed in breast cancer. The 13q34 amplification, which is associated with the basal-like breast cancer subtype, has been proposed as one of the mechanism behind CUL4A up-regulation. However, the specific contribution of CUL4A to the biology of basal-like breast tumors has not yet been elucidated. In this work, by using cellular models of basal phenotype, we show the inhibitory effect of CUL4A silencing in the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells both, in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate the transforming capacity of CUL4A exogenous overexpression in the 184B5 human mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Our results suggest a synergistic effect between CUL4A high levels and the activation of the RAS pathway in the tumorigenesis of basal-like breast cancer tumors. In addition, by using a proteomics approach we have defined novel candidate proteins and pathways that might mediate the oncogenic effect of CUL4A. In particular, we report a putative role of CUL4A in bypassing the immune system in breast cancer through the down-regulation of several molecules involved in the immune surveillance. These findings provide insight into the oncogenic properties of CUL4A in basal-like breast cancer and highlight the therapeutic opportunities to target CUL4A.
|Rapid identification of regulatory microRNAs by miTRAP (miRNA trapping by RNA in vitro affinity purification).|
Braun, J; Misiak, D; Busch, B; Krohn, K; Hüttelmaier, S
Nucleic acids research 42 e66 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, the identification of miRNAs regulating the fate of a specific messenger RNA remains limited due to the imperfect complementarity of miRNAs and targeted transcripts. Here, we describe miTRAP (miRNA trapping by RNA in vitro affinity purification), an advanced protocol of previously reported MS2-tethering approaches. MiTRAP allows the rapid identification of miRNAs targeting an in vitro transcribed RNA in cell lysates. Selective co-purification of regulatory miRNAs was confirmed for the MYC- as well as ZEB2-3'UTR, two well-established miRNA targets in vivo. Combined with miRNA-sequencing, miTRAP identified in addition to miRNAs reported to control MYC expression, 18 novel candidates including not in silico predictable miRNAs. The evaluation of 10 novel candidate miRNAs confirmed 3'UTR-dependent regulation of MYC expression as well as putative non-canonical targeting sites for the not in silico predictable candidates. In conclusion, miTRAP provides a rapid, cost-effective and easy-to-handle protocol allowing the identification of regulatory miRNAs for RNAs of choice in a cellular context of interest. Most notably, miTRAP not only identifies in silico predictable but also unpredictable miRNAs regulating the expression of a specific target RNA.
|A mouse model for inducible overexpression of Prdm14 results in rapid-onset and highly penetrant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).|
Carofino, BL; Ayanga, B; Justice, MJ
Disease models & mechanisms 6 1494-506 2013
PRDM14 functions in embryonic stem cell (ESC) maintenance to promote the expression of pluripotency-associated genes while suppressing differentiation genes. Expression of PRDM14 is tightly regulated and typically limited to ESCs and primordial germ cells; however, aberrant expression is associated with tumor initiation in a wide variety of human cancers, including breast cancer and leukemia. Here, we describe the generation of a Cre-recombinase-inducible mouse model for the spatial and temporal control of Prdm14 misexpression [ROSA26 floxed-stop Prdm14 (R26PR)]. When R26PR is mated to either of two Cre lines, Mx1-cre or MMTV-cre, mice develop early-onset T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with median overall survival of 41 and 64 days for R26PR;Mx1-cre and R26PR;MMTV-cre, respectively. T-ALL is characterized by the accumulation of immature single-positive CD8 cells and their widespread infiltration. Leukemia is preceded by a dramatic expansion of cells resembling hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid-committed progenitors prior to disease onset, accompanied by a blockage in B-cell differentiation at the early pro-B stage. Rapid-onset PRDM14-induced T-ALL requires factors that are present in stem and progenitor cells: R26PR;dLck-cre animals, which express Prdm14 starting at the double-positive stage of thymocyte development, do not develop disease. PRDM14-induced leukemic cells contain high levels of activated NOTCH1 and downstream NOTCH1 targets, including MYC and HES1, and are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH1 with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Greater than 50% of human T-ALLs harbor activating mutations in NOTCH1; thus, our model carries clinically relevant molecular aberrations. The penetrance, short latency and involvement of the NOTCH1 pathway will make this hematopoietic R26PR mouse model ideal for future studies on disease initiation, relapse and novel therapeutic drug combinations. Furthermore, breeding R26PR to additional Cre lines will allow for the continued development of novel cancer models.
|A stomatin dimer modulates the activity of acid-sensing ion channels.|
Brand, J; Smith, ES; Schwefel, D; Lapatsina, L; Poole, K; Omerbašić, D; Kozlenkov, A; Behlke, J; Lewin, GR; Daumke, O
The EMBO journal 31 3635-46 2012
Stomatin proteins oligomerize at membranes and have been implicated in ion channel regulation and membrane trafficking. To obtain mechanistic insights into their function, we determined three crystal structures of the conserved stomatin domain of mouse stomatin that assembles into a banana-shaped dimer. We show that dimerization is crucial for the repression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) activity. A hydrophobic pocket at the inside of the concave surface is open in the presence of an internal peptide ligand and closes in the absence of this ligand, and we demonstrate a function of this pocket in the inhibition of ASIC3 activity. In one crystal form, stomatin assembles via two conserved surfaces into a cylindrical oligomer, and these oligomerization surfaces are also essential for the inhibition of ASIC3-mediated currents. The assembly mode of stomatin uncovered in this study might serve as a model to understand oligomerization processes of related membrane-remodelling proteins, such as flotillin and prohibitin.
|In vivo inhibition of c-MYC in myeloid cells impairs tumor-associated macrophage maturation and pro-tumoral activities.|
Pello, OM; Chèvre, R; Laoui, D; De Juan, A; Lolo, F; Andrés-Manzano, MJ; Serrano, M; Van Ginderachter, JA; Andrés, V
PloS one 7 e45399 2012
Although tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor growth and metastasis, the mechanisms controlling their pro-tumoral activities remain largely unknown. The transcription factor c-MYC has been recently shown to regulate in vitro human macrophage polarization and be expressed in macrophages infiltrating human tumors. In this study, we exploited the predominant expression of LysM in myeloid cells to generate c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice, which lack c-Myc in macrophages, to investigate the role of macrophage c-MYC expression in cancer. Under steady-state conditions, immune system parameters in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice appeared normal, including the abundance of different subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, precursors and circulating cells, macrophage density, and immune organ structure. In a model of melanoma, however, TAMs lacking c-Myc displayed a delay in maturation and showed an attenuation of pro-tumoral functions (e.g., reduced expression of VEGF, MMP9, and HIF1α) that was associated with impaired tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and limited tumor growth in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice. Macrophage c-Myc deletion also diminished fibrosarcoma growth. These data identify c-Myc as a positive regulator of the pro-tumoral program of TAMs and suggest c-Myc inactivation as an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.
|Suppression of Ras/Mapk pathway signaling inhibits Myc-induced lymphomagenesis.|
Gramling, MW; Eischen, CM
Cell death and differentiation 19 1220-7 2012
Although the Myc transcription factor has been shown necessary for the oncogenic function of Ras, the contribution of Ras pathway signaling to the oncogenic function of Myc remains unresolved. We report the novel findings that Myc alone induced Ras/Mapk pathway signaling, and increased signaling following growth factor stimulation. Deletion of the scaffold protein kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (Ksr1) attenuated signaling through the Ras/Mapk pathway, including activation following Myc induction. B cells that lacked Ksr1 exhibited reduced proliferation and increased cytokine deprivation-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of Myc rescued the proliferation defect of Ksr1-null B cells, but loss of Ksr1 increased sensitivity of B cells to Myc-induced apoptosis. Notably, there was a significant delay in lymphoma development in Ksr1-null mice overexpressing Myc in B cells (Eμ-myc transgenic mice). There was an elevated frequency of p53 inactivation, indicative of increased selective pressure to bypass the p53 tumor suppressor pathway, in Ksr1-null Eμ-myc lymphomas. Therefore, loss of Ksr1 inhibits Ras/Mapk pathway signaling leading to increased Myc-induced B-cell apoptosis, and this results in reduced B-cell transformation and lymphoma development. Our data indicate that suppression of Myc-induced Ras/Mapk pathway signaling significantly impairs Myc oncogenic function. These results fill a significant gap in knowledge about Myc and should open new avenues of therapeutic intervention for Myc-overexpressing malignancies.
|Lrig1 controls intestinal stem-cell homeostasis by negative regulation of ErbB signalling.|
Wong, VW; Stange, DE; Page, ME; Buczacki, S; Wabik, A; Itami, S; van de Wetering, M; Poulsom, R; Wright, NA; Trotter, MW; Watt, FM; Winton, DJ; Clevers, H; Jensen, KB
Nature cell biology 14 401-8 2012
Maintenance of adult tissues is carried out by stem cells and is sustained throughout life in a highly ordered manner. Homeostasis within the stem-cell compartment is governed by positive- and negative-feedback regulation of instructive extrinsic and intrinsic signals. ErbB signalling is a prerequisite for maintenance of the intestinal epithelium following injury and tumour formation. As ErbB-family ligands and receptors are highly expressed within the stem-cell niche, we hypothesize that strong endogenous regulators must control the pathway in the stem-cell compartment. Here we show that Lrig1, a negative-feedback regulator of the ErbB receptor family, is highly expressed by intestinal stem cells and controls the size of the intestinal stem-cell niche by regulating the amplitude of growth-factor signalling. Intestinal stem-cell maintenance has so far been attributed to a combination of Wnt and Notch activation and Bmpr inhibition. Our findings reveal ErbB activation as a strong inductive signal for stem-cell proliferation. This has implications for our understanding of ErbB signalling in tissue development and maintenance and the progression of malignant disease.