Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||EMSA, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-NF#954;B p52 - 2127184||2127184|
|Anti-NF#954;B p52 - 2138399||2138399|
|Anti-NF#954;B p52 - JBC1864715||JBC1864715|
|Anti-NFB p52 - 2032277||2032277|
|Anti-NFB p52 - 2052861||2052861|
|Anti-NFB p52 - 2073103||2073103|
|Anti-NFB p52 - 2194156||2194156|
|Anti-NFB p52 - 2325109||2325109|
|Anti-NFB p52 - DAM1462560||DAM1462560|
|Anti-NFB p52 - DAM1623212||DAM1623212|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.|
Greenfeld, H; Takasaki, K; Walsh, MJ; Ersing, I; Bernhardt, K; Ma, Y; Fu, B; Ashbaugh, CW; Cabo, J; Mollo, SB; Zhou, H; Li, S; Gewurz, BE
PLoS pathogens 11 e1004890 2015
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), and stimulated linear (M1)-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on LMP1 complexes may facilitate downstream canonical NF-kB pathway activation. Our results highlight LUBAC as a novel potential therapeutic target in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.
|Cezanne regulates E2F1-dependent HIF2α expression.|
Moniz, S; Bandarra, D; Biddlestone, J; Campbell, KJ; Komander, D; Bremm, A; Rocha, S
Journal of cell science 128 3082-93 2015
Mechanisms regulating protein degradation ensure the correct and timely expression of transcription factors such as hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Under normal O2 tension, HIFα subunits are targeted for proteasomal degradation, mainly through vHL-dependent ubiquitylation. Deubiquitylases are responsible for reversing this process. Although the mechanism and regulation of HIFα by ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation has been the object of many studies, little is known about the role of deubiquitylases. Here, we show that expression of HIF2α (encoded by EPAS1) is regulated by the deubiquitylase Cezanne (also known as OTUD7B) in an E2F1-dependent manner. Knockdown of Cezanne downregulates HIF2α mRNA, protein and activity independently of hypoxia and proteasomal degradation. Mechanistically, expression of the HIF2α gene is controlled directly by E2F1, and Cezanne regulates the stability of E2F1. Exogenous E2F1 can rescue HIF2α transcript and protein expression when Cezanne is depleted. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of the expression of HIF2α, demonstrating that the HIF2α promoter is regulated by E2F1 directly and that Cezanne regulates HIF2α expression through control of E2F1 levels. Our results thus suggest that HIF2α is controlled transcriptionally in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and in response to oncogenic signalling.
|Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates DNA double strand breaks in Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-induced leukemia/lymphoma.|
Baydoun, HH; Cherian, MA; Green, P; Ratner, L
Retrovirology 12 71 2015
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive and fatal malignancy of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes infected by the Human T-Cell Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1). The molecular mechanisms of transformation in ATLL have not been fully elucidated. However, genomic instability and cumulative DNA damage during the long period of latency is believed to be essential for HTLV-1 induced leukemogenesis. In addition, constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway was found to be a critical determinant for transformation. Whether a connection exists between NF-κB activation and accumulation of DNA damage is not clear. We recently found that the HTLV-1 viral oncoprotein, Tax, the activator of the NF-κB pathway, induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs).Here, we investigated whether any of the NF-κB target genes are critical in inducing DSBs. Of note, we found that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages, neutrophils and T-cells is over expressed in HTLV-1 infected and Tax-expressing cells. Interestingly, we show that in HTLV-1 infected cells, iNOS expression is Tax-dependent and specifically requires the activation of the classical NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways. A dramatic reduction of DSBs was observed when NO production was inhibited, indicating that Tax induces DSBs through the activation of NO synthesis.Determination of the impact of NO on HTLV-1-induced leukemogenesis opens a new area for treatment or prevention of ATLL and perhaps other cancers in which NO is produced.
|TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1 is a Major Target of Soluble TWEAK.|
Carmona Arana, JA; Seher, A; Neumann, M; Lang, I; Siegmund, D; Wajant, H
Frontiers in immunology 5 63 2014
Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), in contrast to membrane TWEAK and TNF, is only a weak activator of the classical NFκB pathway. We observed that soluble TWEAK was regularly more potent than TNF with respect to the induction of TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), a NFκB-controlled signaling protein involved in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways. TNF-induced TRAF1 expression was efficiently blocked by inhibition of the classical NFκB pathway using the IKK2 inhibitor, TPCA1. In contrast, in some cell lines, TWEAK-induced TRAF1 production was only partly inhibited by TPCA1. The NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924, however, which inhibits classical and alternative NFκB signaling, blocked TNF- and TWEAK-induced TRAF1 expression. This suggests that TRAF1 induction by soluble TWEAK is based on the cooperative activity of the two NFκB signaling pathways. We have previously shown that oligomerization of soluble TWEAK results in ligand complexes with membrane TWEAK-like activity. Oligomerization of soluble TWEAK showed no effect on the dose response of TRAF1 induction, but potentiated the ability of soluble TWEAK to trigger production of the classical NFκB-regulated cytokine IL8. Transfectants expressing soluble TWEAK and membrane TWEAK showed similar induction of TRAF1 while only the membrane TWEAK expressing cells robustly stimulated IL8 production. These data indicate that soluble TWEAK may efficiently induce a distinct subset of the membrane TWEAK-targeted genes and argue again for a crucial role of classical NFκB pathway-independent signaling in TWEAK-induced TRAF1 expression. Other TWEAK targets, which can be equally well induced by soluble and membrane TWEAK, remain to be identified and the relevance of the ability of soluble TWEAK to induce such a distinct subset of membrane TWEAK-targeted genes for TWEAK biology will have to be clarified in future studies.
|The RelB alternative NF-kappaB subunit promotes autophagy in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells in vitro and affects mouse xenograft tumor growth in vivo.|
Labouba, I; Poisson, A; Lafontaine, J; Delvoye, N; Gannon, PO; Le Page, C; Saad, F; Mes-Masson, AM
Cancer cell international 14 67 2014
The involvement of NF-κB signaling in prostate cancer (PCa) has largely been established through the study of the classical p65 subunit. Nuclear localization of p65 in PCa patient tissues has been shown to correlate with biochemical recurrence, while in vitro studies have demonstrated that the classical NF-κB signaling pathway promotes PCa progression and metastatic potential. More recently, the nuclear location of RelB, a member of the alternative NF-κB signaling, has also been shown to correlate with the Gleason score. The current study aims to clarify the role of alternative NF-κB in PCa cells by exploring, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of RelB overexpression on PCa biology.Using a lentivirus-expression system, we constitutively overexpressed RelB or control GFP into 22Rv1 cells and monitored alternative transcriptional NF-κB activity. In vivo, tumor growth was assessed after the injection of 22Rv1-derived cells into SCID mice. In vitro, the impact of RelB on 22Rv1 cell proliferation was evaluated in monolayer culture. The anchorage-independent cell growth of derived-22Rv1 cells was assessed by soft agar assay. Apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by Western blot analysis in 22Rv1-derived cells cultured in suspension using poly-HEMA pre-coated dishes.The overexpression of RelB in 22Rv1 cells induced the constitutive activation of the alternative NF-κB pathway. In vivo, RelB expression caused a lag in the initiation of 22Rv1-induced tumors in SCID mice. In vitro, RelB stimulated the proliferation of 22Rv1 cells and reduced their ability to grow in soft agar. These observations may be reconciled by our findings that, when cultured in suspension on poly-HEMA pre-coated dishes, 22Rv1 cells expressing RelB were more susceptible to cell death, and more specifically to autophagy controlled death.This study highlights a role of the alternative NF-κB pathway in proliferation and the controlled autophagy. Thus, the interplay of these properties may contribute to tumor survival in stress conditions while promoting PCa cells growth contributing to the overall tumorigenicity of these cells.
|Regulation of p53 and Rb links the alternative NF-κB pathway to EZH2 expression and cell senescence.|
Iannetti, A; Ledoux, AC; Tudhope, SJ; Sellier, H; Zhao, B; Mowla, S; Moore, A; Hummerich, H; Gewurz, BE; Cockell, SJ; Jat, PS; Willmore, E; Perkins, ND
PLoS genetics 10 e1004642 2014
There are two major pathways leading to induction of NF-κB subunits. The classical (or canonical) pathway typically leads to the induction of RelA or c-Rel containing complexes, and involves the degradation of IκBα in a manner dependent on IκB kinase (IKK) β and the IKK regulatory subunit NEMO. The alternative (or non-canonical) pathway, involves the inducible processing of p100 to p52, leading to the induction of NF-κB2(p52)/RelB containing complexes, and is dependent on IKKα and NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK). Here we demonstrate that in primary human fibroblasts, the alternative NF-κB pathway subunits NF-κB2 and RelB have multiple, but distinct, effects on the expression of key regulators of the cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein stability. Specifically, following siRNA knockdown, quantitative PCR, western blot analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) show that NF-κB2 regulates the expression of CDK4 and CDK6, while RelB, through the regulation of genes such as PSMA5 and ANAPC1, regulates the stability of p21WAF1 and the tumour suppressor p53. These combine to regulate the activity of the retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leading to induction of polycomb protein EZH2 expression. Moreover, our ChIP analysis demonstrates that EZH2 is also a direct NF-κB target gene. Microarray analysis revealed that in fibroblasts, EZH2 antagonizes a subset of p53 target genes previously associated with the senescent cell phenotype, including DEK and RacGAP1. We show that this pathway provides the major route of crosstalk between the alternative NF-κB pathway and p53, a consequence of which is to suppress cell senescence. Importantly, we find that activation of NF-κB also induces EZH2 expression in CD40L stimulated cells from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients. We therefore propose that this pathway provides a mechanism through which microenvironment induced NF-κB can inhibit tumor suppressor function and promote tumorigenesis.
|Targeting IκB proteins for HIV latency activation: the role of individual IκB and NF-κB proteins.|
Fernandez, G; Zaikos, TD; Khan, SZ; Jacobi, AM; Behlke, MA; Zeichner, SL
Journal of virology 87 3966-78 2013
Latently infected cell reservoirs represent the main barrier to HIV eradication. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively blocks viral replication but cannot purge latent provirus. One approach to HIV eradication could include cART to block new infections plus an agent to activate latent provirus. NF-κB activation induces HIV expression, ending latency. Before activation, IκB proteins sequester NF-κB dimers in the cytoplasm. Three canonical IκBs, IκBα, IκBβ, and IκBε, exist, but the IκB proteins' role in HIV activation regulation is not fully understood. We studied the effects on HIV activation of targeting IκBs by single and pairwise small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. After determining the relative abundance of the IκBs, the relative abundance of NF-κB subunits held by the IκBs, and the kinetics of IκB degradation and resynthesis following knockdown, we studied HIV activation by IκB knockdown, in comparison with those of known HIV activators, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), and trichostatin A (TSA), in U1 monocytic and J-Lat 10.6 lymphocytic latently infected cells. We found that IκBα knockdown activated HIV in both U1 and J-Lat 10.6 cells, IκBβ knockdown did not activate HIV, and, surprisingly, IκBε knockdown produced the most HIV activation, comparable to TSA activation. Our data show that HIV reactivation can be triggered by targeting two different IκB proteins and that IκBε may be an effective target for HIV latency reactivation in T-cell and macrophage lineages. IκBε knockdown may offer attractive therapeutic advantages for HIV activation because it is not essential for mammalian growth and development and because new siRNA delivery strategies may target siRNAs to HIV latently infected cells.
|The IKK inhibitor Bay 11-7082 induces cell death independent from inhibition of activation of NFκB transcription factors.|
Rauert-Wunderlich, H; Siegmund, D; Maier, E; Giner, T; Bargou, RC; Wajant, H; Stühmer, T
PloS one 8 e59292 2013
Multiple myeloma (MM) displays an NFκB activity-related gene expression signature and about 20% of primary MM samples harbor genetic alterations conducive to intrinsic NFκB signaling activation. The relevance of blocking the classical versus the alternative NFκB signaling pathway and the molecular execution mechanisms involved, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we comparatively tested NFκB activity abrogation through TPCA-1 (an IKK2 inhibitor), BAY 11-7082 (an IKK inhibitor poorly selective for IKK1 and IKK2), and MLN4924 (an NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE)-inhibitor), and analyzed their anti-MM activity. Whereas TPCA-1 interfered selectively with activation of the classical NFκB pathway, the other two compounds inhibited classical and alternative NFκB signaling without significant discrimination. Noteworthy, whereas TPCA-1 and MLN4924 elicited rather mild anti-MM effects with slight to moderate cell death induction after 1 day BAY 11-7082 was uniformly highly toxic to MM cell lines and primary MM cells. Treatment with BAY 11-7082 induced rapid cell swelling and its initial effects were blocked by necrostatin-1 or the ROS scavenger BHA, but a lasting protective effect was not achieved even with additional blockade of caspases. Because MLN4924 inhibits the alternative NFκB pathway downstream of IKK1 at the level of p100 processing, the quite discordant effects between MLN4924 and BAY 11-7082 must thus be due to blockade of IKK1-mediated NFκB-independent necrosis-inhibitory functions or represent an off-target effect of BAY 11-7082. In accordance with the latter, we further observed that concomitant knockdown of IKK1 and IKK2 did not have any major short-term adverse effect on the viability of MM cells.
|NFκB regulates expression of Polo-like kinase 4.|
Ledoux, AC; Sellier, H; Gillies, K; Iannetti, A; James, J; Perkins, ND
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 3052-62 2013
Activation of the NFκB signaling pathway allows the cell to respond to infection and stress and can affect many cellular processes. As a consequence, NFκB activity must be integrated with a wide variety of parallel signaling pathways. One mechanism through which NFκB can exert widespread effects is through controlling the expression of key regulatory kinases. Here we report that NFκB regulates the expression of genes required for centrosome duplication, and that Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a direct NFκB target gene. RNA interference, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and analysis of the PLK4 promoter in a luciferase reporter assay revealed that all NFκB subunits participate in its regulation. Moreover, we demonstrate that NFκB regulation of PLK4 expression is seen in multiple cell types. Significantly long-term deletion of the NFκB2 (p100/p52) subunit leads to defects in centrosome structure. This data reveals a new component of cell cycle regulation by NFκB and suggests a mechanism through which deregulated NFκB activity in cancer can lead to increased genomic instability and uncontrolled proliferation.
|TfR1 interacts with the IKK complex and is involved in IKK-NF-κB signalling.|
Kenneth, NS; Mudie, S; Naron, S; Rocha, S
The Biochemical journal 449 275-84 2013
The IKK [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) kinase] complex has an essential role in the activation of the family of NF-κB transcription factors in response to a variety of stimuli. To identify novel IKK-interacting proteins, we performed an unbiased proteomics screen where we identified TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1). TfR1 is required for transferrin binding and internalization and ultimately for iron homoeostasis. TfR1 depletion does not lead to changes in IKK subunit protein levels; however, it does reduce the formation of the IKK complex, and inhibits TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α)-induced NF-κB-dependent transcription. We find that, in the absence of TfR1, NF-κB does not translocate to the nucleus efficiently, and there is a reduction in the binding to target gene promoters and consequentially less target gene activation. Significantly, depletion of TfR1 results in an increase in apoptosis in response to TNFα treatment, which is rescued by elevating the levels of RelA/NF-κB. Taken together, these results indicate a new function for TfR1 in the control of IKK and NF-κB. Our data indicate that IKK-NF-κB responds to changes in iron within the cell.