Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M||ICC, IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal IgG in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine, 0.15 M NaCl, and 0.05% sodium azide. Frozen solution.|
|Application||Detect NR2B using this Anti-NR2B Antibody validated for use in IC, IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||250 µg|
|Anti-NR2B - 2116015||2116015|
|Anti-NR2B - 15656||15656|
|Anti-NR2B - 1962660||1962660|
|Anti-NR2B - 1984840||1984840|
|Anti-NR2B - 2019590||2019590|
|Anti-NR2B - 2043522||2043522|
|Anti-NR2B - 20740||20740|
|Anti-NR2B - 2153151||2153151|
|Anti-NR2B - 2297226||2297226|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|A novel approach identifies the first transcriptome networks in bats: a new genetic model for vocal communication.|
Rodenas-Cuadrado, P; Chen, XS; Wiegrebe, L; Firzlaff, U; Vernes, SC
BMC genomics 16 836 2015
Bats are able to employ an astonishingly complex vocal repertoire for navigating their environment and conveying social information. A handful of species also show evidence for vocal learning, an extremely rare ability shared only with humans and few other animals. However, despite their potential for the study of vocal communication, bats remain severely understudied at a molecular level. To address this fundamental gap we performed the first transcriptome profiling and genetic interrogation of molecular networks in the brain of a highly vocal bat species, Phyllostomus discolor.Gene network analysis typically needs large sample sizes for correct clustering, this can be prohibitive where samples are limited, such as in this study. To overcome this, we developed a novel bioinformatics methodology for identifying robust co-expression gene networks using few samples (N=6). Using this approach, we identified tissue-specific functional gene networks from the bat PAG, a brain region fundamental for mammalian vocalisation. The most highly connected network identified represented a cluster of genes involved in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Glutamatergic receptors play a significant role in vocalisation from the PAG, suggesting that this gene network may be mechanistically important for vocal-motor control in mammals.We have developed an innovative approach to cluster co-expressing gene networks and show that it is highly effective in detecting robust functional gene networks with limited sample sizes. Moreover, this work represents the first gene network analysis performed in a bat brain and establishes bats as a novel, tractable model system for understanding the genetics of vocal mammalian communication.
|Simvastatin treatment enhances NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission by upregulating the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit.|
Parent, MA; Hottman, DA; Cheng, S; Zhang, W; McMahon, LL; Yuan, LL; Li, L
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 34 693-705 2014
The ramifications of statins on plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease have been well documented. However, there is increasing evidence that inhibition of the mevalonate pathway may provide independent neuroprotective and procognitive pleiotropic effects, most likely via inhibition of isoprenoids, mainly farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). FPP and GGPP are the major donors of prenyl groups for protein prenylation. Modulation of isoprenoid availability impacts a slew of cellular processes including synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Our previous work has demonstrated that simvastatin (SV) administration improves hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, rescuing memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Treatment of hippocampal slices with SV enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), and this effect is dependent on the activation of Akt (protein kinase B). Further studies showed that SV-induced enhancement of hippocampal LTP is driven by depletion of FPP and inhibition of farnesylation. In the present study, we report the functional consequences of exposure to SV at cellular/synaptic and molecular levels. While application of SV has no effect on intrinsic membrane properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons, including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide channel-mediated sag potentials, the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), and excitability, SV application potentiates the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated contribution to synaptic transmission. In mouse hippocampal slices and human neuronal cells, SV treatment increases the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDAR without affecting cellular cholesterol content. We conclude that SV-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus is likely mediated by augmentation of synaptic NMDAR components that are largely responsible for driving synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region.
|The nucleosome assembly protein TSPYL2 regulates the expression of NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B.|
Tsang, KH; Lai, SK; Li, Q; Yung, WH; Liu, H; Mak, PH; Ng, CC; McAlonan, G; Chan, YS; Chan, SY
Scientific reports 4 3654 2014
TSPYL2 is an X-linked gene encoding a nucleosome assembly protein. TSPYL2 interacts with calmodulin-associated serine/threonine kinase, which is implicated in X-linked mental retardation. As nucleosome assembly and chromatin remodeling are important in transcriptional regulation and neuronal function, we addressed the importance of TSPYL2 through analyzing Tspyl2 loss-of-function mice. We detected down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 2A and 2B (GluN2A and GluN2B) in the mutant hippocampus. Evidence from luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation supported that TSPYL2 regulated the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b, the genes encoding GluN2A and GluN2B. We also detected an interaction between TSPYL2 and CBP, indicating that TSPYL2 may activate gene expression through binding CBP. In terms of functional outcome, Tspyl2 loss-of-function impaired long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, mutant mice showed a deficit in fear learning and memory. We conclude that TSPYL2 contributes to cognitive variability through regulating the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b.
|Effect of D-cycloserine in conjunction with fear extinction training on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in rat.|
Gupta, SC; Hillman, BG; Prakash, A; Ugale, RR; Stairs, DJ; Dravid, SM
The European journal of neuroscience 37 1811-22 2013
D-cycloserine (DCS) is currently under clinical trials for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and has been found to augment fear extinction in rodents and exposure therapy in humans. However, the molecular mechanism of DCS action in these multiple modalities remains unclear. Here, we describe the effect of DCS administration, alone or in conjunction with extinction training, on neuronal activity (c-fos) and neuronal plasticity [phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)] markers using immunohistochemistry. We found that intraperitoneal administration of DCS in untrained young rats (24-28 days old) increased c-fos- and pERK-stained neurons in both the prelimbic and infralimbic division of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and reduced pERK levels in the lateral nucleus of the central amygdala. Moreover, DCS administration significantly increased GluA1, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B expression in the mPFC. In a separate set of animals, we found that DCS facilitated fear extinction and increased pERK levels in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex, prelimbic prefrontal cortex intercalated cells and lateral nucleus of the central amygdala, compared with saline control. In the synaptoneurosomal preparation, we found that extinction training increased iGluR protein expression in the mPFC, compared with context animals. No significant difference in protein expression was observed between extinction-saline and extinction-DCS groups in the mPFC. In contrast, in the amygdala DCS, the conjunction with extinction training led to an increase in iGluR subunit expression, compared with the extinction-saline group. Our data suggest that the efficacy of DCS in neuropsychiatric disorders may be partly due to its ability to affect neuronal activity and signaling in the mPFC and amygdala subnuclei.
|A polyamine-deficient diet prevents oxaliplatin-induced acute cold and mechanical hypersensitivity in rats.|
Ferrier, J; Bayet-Robert, M; Pereira, B; Daulhac, L; Eschalier, A; Pezet, D; Moulinoux, JP; Balayssac, D
PloS one 8 e77828 2013
Oxaliplatin is an anticancer drug used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer, but it can also cause painful peripheral neuropathies. The pathophysiology of these neuropathies has not been yet fully elucidated, but may involve spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, particularly the NR2B subunit. As polyamines are positive modulators of NMDA-NR2B receptors and mainly originate from dietary intake, the modulation of polyamines intake could represent an interesting way to prevent/modulate neuropathic pain symptoms by opposing glutamate neurotransmission.The effect of a polyamine deficient diet was investigated in an animal model of oxaliplatin-induced acute pain hypersensitivity using behavioral tests (mechanical and cold hypersensitivity). The involvement of spinal glutamate neurotransmission was monitored by using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based metabolomic approach and by assessing the expression and phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor.A 7-day polyamine deficient diet totally prevented oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia. Oxaliplatin-induced pain hypersensitivity was not associated with an increase in NR2B subunit expression or phosphorylation, but with an increase of glutamate level in the spinal dorsal horn which was completely prevented by a polyamine deficient diet. As a validation that the oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity could be due to an increased activity of the spinal glutamate system, an intrathecal administration of the specific NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, totally reversed oxaliplatin-induced mechanical and cold hypersensitivity.A polyamine deficient diet could represent a promising and valuable nutritional therapy to prevent oxaliplatin-induced acute pain hypersensitivity.
|The GluN3A subunit exerts a neuroprotective effect in brain ischemia and the hypoxia process.|
Wang, H; Yan, H; Zhang, S; Wei, X; Zheng, J; Li, J
ASN neuro 5 231-42 2013
NMDARs (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) mediate the predominantly excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS (central nervous system). Excessive release of glutamate and overactivation of NMDARs during brain ischemia and the hypoxia process are causally linked to excitotoxicity and neuronal damage. GluN3 subunits, the third member of the NMDAR family with two isoforms, GluN3A and GluN3B, have been confirmed to display an inhibitory effect on NMDAR activity. However, the effect of GluN3 subunits in brain ischemia and hypoxia is not clearly understood. In the present study, the influence of ischemia and hypoxia on GluN3 subunit expression was observed by using the 2VO (two-vessel occlusion) rat brain ischemia model and cell OGD (oxygen and glucose deprivation) hypoxia model. It was found that GluN3A protein expression in rat hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex was increased quickly after brain ischemia and remained at a high level for at least 24 h. However, the expression of the GluN3B subunit was not remarkably changed in both the animal and cell models. After OGD exposure, rat hippocampal neurons with GluN3A subunit overexpression displayed more viability than the wild-type neurons. NG108-15 cells overexpressing GluN3A presented pronounced resistance to glutamate insult. Blocking the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration may underlie the neuroprotective mechanism of up-regulated GluN3A subunit. Suppressing the generation of hydroxyl radicals and NO (nitric oxide) is probably also involved in the neuroprotection.
|Enhanced expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors in the inherited glaucomatous DBA/2J mouse retina.|
Dong, LD; Chen, J; Li, F; Gao, F; Wu, J; Miao, Y; Wang, Z
Neural plasticity 2013 670254 2013
DBA/2J mouse has been used as a model for spontaneous secondary glaucoma. Here, we investigated changes in expression of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits and Cdk5/p35/NMDAR signaling in retinas of DBA/2J mice using Western blot technique. The protein levels of NR1 and NR2A subunits in retinas of DBA/2J mice at all ages (6-12 months) were not different from those in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, the protein levels of NR2B subunits, in addition to age-dependent change, significantly increased with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in DBA/2J mice at 6 and 9 months as compared with age-matched controls. Moreover, expression of Cdk5, p35 and ratio of p-NR2A(S1232)/NR2A progressively increased with time in both strains, suggestive of activated Cdk5/p35 signaling pathway. However, the changes in these proteins were in the same levels in both strain mice, except a significant increase of p35 proteins at 6 months in DBA/2J mice. Meanwhile, the protein levels of Brn-3a, a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) maker, remarkably decreased at 9-12 months in DBA/2J mice, which was in parallel with the changes of NR2B expression. Our results suggest that elevated IOP-induced increase in expression of NR2B subunits of NMDARs may be involved in RGC degeneration of DBA/2J mice.
|Dab1 is required for synaptic plasticity and associative learning.|
Trotter, J; Lee, GH; Kazdoba, TM; Crowell, B; Domogauer, J; Mahoney, HM; Franco, SJ; Müller, U; Weeber, EJ; D'Arcangelo, G
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 15652-68 2013
Disabled-1 (Dab1) is an adaptor protein that is an obligate effector of the Reelin signaling pathway, and is critical for neuronal migration and dendrite outgrowth during development. Components of the Reelin pathway are highly expressed during development, but also continue to be expressed in the adult brain. Here we investigated in detail the expression pattern of Dab1 in the postnatal and adult forebrain, and determined that it is expressed in excitatory as well as inhibitory neurons. Dab1 was found to be localized in different cellular compartments, including the soma, dendrites, presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. Mice that are deficient in Dab1, Reelin, or the Reelin receptors ApoER2 and VLDLR exhibit severely perturbed brain cytoarchitecture, limiting the utility of these mice for investigating the role of this signaling pathway in the adult brain. In this study, we developed an adult forebrain-specific and excitatory neuron-specific conditional knock-out mouse line, and demonstrated that Dab1 is a critical regulator of synaptic function and hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial learning. These dramatic abnormalities were accompanied by a reduction in dendritic spine size, and defects in basal and plasticity-induced Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Deletion of Dab1 led to no obvious changes in neuronal positioning, dendrite morphology, spine density, or synaptic composition. Collectively, these data conclusively demonstrate an important role for Reelin-Dab1 signaling in the adult forebrain, and underscore the importance of this pathway in learning and memory.
|REST-dependent epigenetic remodeling promotes the developmental switch in synaptic NMDA receptors.|
Rodenas-Ruano, A; Chávez, AE; Cossio, MJ; Castillo, PE; Zukin, RS
Nature neuroscience 15 1382-90 2012
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are critical to synaptogenesis, neural circuitry and higher cognitive functions. A hallmark feature of NMDARs is an early postnatal developmental switch from those containing primarily GluN2B to primarily GluN2A subunits. Although the switch in phenotype has been an area of intense interest for two decades, the mechanisms that trigger it and the link between experience and the switch are unclear. Here we show a new role for the transcriptional repressor REST in the developmental switch of synaptic NMDARs. REST is activated at a critical window of time and acts via epigenetic remodeling to repress Grin2b expression and alter NMDAR properties at rat hippocampal synapses. Knockdown of REST in vivo prevented the decline in GluN2B and developmental switch in NMDARs. Maternal deprivation impaired REST activation and acquisition of the mature NMDAR phenotype. Thus, REST is essential for experience-dependent fine-tuning of genes involved in synaptic plasticity.
|Perturbing PSD-95 interactions with NR2B-subtype receptors attenuates spinal nociceptive plasticity and neuropathic pain.|
D'Mello, R; Marchand, F; Pezet, S; McMahon, SB; Dickenson, AH
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 19 1780-92 2011
Peripheral inflammation or nerve injury induces a primary afferent barrage into the spinal cord, which can cause N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent alterations in the responses of dorsal horn sensory neurons to subsequent afferent inputs. This plasticity, such as "wind-up" and central sensitization, contributes to the hyperexcitability of dorsal horn neurons and increased pain-related behavior in animal models, as well as clinical signs of chronic pain in humans, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Binding of NMDA receptor subunits by the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) can facilitate downstream intracellular signaling and modulate receptor stability, contributing to synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that spinal delivery of the mimetic peptide Tat-NR2B9c disrupts the interaction between PSD-95 and NR2B subunits in the dorsal horn and selectively reduces NMDA receptor-dependent events including wind-up of spinal sensory neurons, and both persistent formalin-induced neuronal activity and pain-related behaviors, attributed to central sensitization. Furthermore, a single intrathecal injection of Tat-NR2B9c in rats with established nerve injury-induced pain attenuates behavioral signs of mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, with no effect on locomotor performance. Thus, uncoupling of PSD-95 from spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors may prevent the neuronal plasticity involved in chronic pain and may be a successful analgesic therapy, reducing side effects associated with receptor blockade.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Glutamatergic Synapse Flyer|