Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Anti-Necdin Antibody is an antibody against Necdin for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Necdin - 2275601||2275601|
|Anti-Necdin - 26873||26873|
|Anti-Necdin - DAM1780493||DAM1780493|
|Anti-Necdin Polyclonal Antibody||2992396|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Putative tumour suppressor gene necdin is hypermethylated and mutated in human cancer.|
De Faveri, LE; Hurst, CD; Platt, FM; Taylor, CF; Roulson, JA; Sanchez-Carbayo, M; Knowles, MA; Chapman, EJ
British journal of cancer 108 1368-77 2013
Necdin (NDN) expression is downregulated in telomerase-immortalised normal human urothelial cells. Telomerase-immortalised normal human urothelial cells have no detected genetic alterations. Accordingly, many of the genes whose expression is altered following immortalisation are those for which epigenetic silencing is reported.NDN expression was examined in normal tissues and tumour cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry was performed on urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urothelial carcinoma and UC cell lines were subject to HumanMethylation27 BeadChip Array-based methylation analyses. Mutation screening was performed. The functional significance of NDN expression was investigated using retroviral-mediated downregulation or overexpression.NDN protein was widely expressed in normal tissues. Loss of expression was observed in 38 out of 44 (86%) of UC cell lines and 19 out of 25 (76%) of non-UC cell lines. Loss of NDN protein was found in the majority of primary UC. Oncomine analysis demonstrated downregulation of expression in multiple tumour types. In UC, tumour-specific hypermethylation of NDN and key CpG sites where hypermethylation correlated with reduced expression were identified. Six novel mutations, including some of predicted functional significance, were identified in colorectal and ovarian cancer cell lines. Functional studies showed that NDN could suppress colony formation at low cell density and affect anchorage-independent growth and anoikis in vitro.NDN is a novel tumour suppressor candidate that is downregulated and hypermethylated or mutated in cancer.
|Stochastic loss of silencing of the imprinted Ndn/NDN allele, in a mouse model and humans with prader-willi syndrome, has functional consequences.|
Rieusset, A; Schaller, F; Unmehopa, U; Matarazzo, V; Watrin, F; Linke, M; Georges, B; Bischof, J; Dijkstra, F; Bloemsma, M; Corby, S; Michel, FJ; Wevrick, R; Zechner, U; Swaab, D; Dudley, K; Bezin, L; Muscatelli, F
PLoS genetics 9 e1003752 2013
Genomic imprinting is a process that causes genes to be expressed from one allele only according to parental origin, the other allele being silent. Diseases can arise when the normally active alleles are not expressed. In this context, low level of expression of the normally silent alleles has been considered as genetic noise although such expression has never been further studied. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disease involving imprinted genes, including NDN, which are only expressed from the paternally inherited allele, with the maternally inherited allele silent. We present the first in-depth study of the low expression of a normally silent imprinted allele, in pathological context. Using a variety of qualitative and quantitative approaches and comparing wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mice deleted for Ndn, we show that, in absence of the paternal Ndn allele, the maternal Ndn allele is expressed at an extremely low level with a high degree of non-genetic heterogeneity. The level of this expression is sex-dependent and shows transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. In about 50% of mutant mice, this expression reduces birth lethality and severity of the breathing deficiency, correlated with a reduction in the loss of serotonergic neurons. In wild-type brains, the maternal Ndn allele is never expressed. However, using several mouse models, we reveal a competition between non-imprinted Ndn promoters which results in monoallelic (paternal or maternal) Ndn expression, suggesting that Ndn allelic exclusion occurs in the absence of imprinting regulation. Importantly, specific expression of the maternal NDN allele is also detected in post-mortem brain samples of PWS individuals. Our data reveal an unexpected epigenetic flexibility of PWS imprinted genes that could be exploited to reactivate the functional but dormant maternal alleles in PWS. Overall our results reveal high non-genetic heterogeneity between genetically identical individuals that might underlie the variability of the phenotype.
|Necdin modulates proliferative cell survival of human cells in response to radiation-induced genotoxic stress.|
Lafontaine, J; Tchakarska, G; Rodier, F; Mes-Masson, AM
BMC cancer 12 234 2012
The finite replicative lifespan of cells, termed cellular senescence, has been proposed as a protective mechanism against the proliferation of oncogenically damaged cells, that fuel cancer. This concept is further supported by the induction of premature senescence, a process which is activated when an oncogene is expressed in normal primary cells as well as following intense genotoxic stresses. Thus, deregulation of genes that control this process, like the tumor suppressor p53, may contribute to promoting cancer by allowing cells to bypass senescence. A better understanding of the genes that contribute to the establishment of senescence is therefore warranted. Necdin interacts with p53 and is also a p53 target gene, although the importance of Necdin in the p53 response is not clearly understood.In this study, we first investigated Necdin protein expression during replicative senescence and premature senescence induced by gamma irradiation and by the overexpression of oncogenic RasV12. Gain and loss of function experiments were used to evaluate the contribution of Necdin during the senescence process.Necdin expression declined during replicative aging of IMR90 primary human fibroblasts or following induction of premature senescence. Decrease in Necdin expression seemed to be a consequence of the establishment of senescence since the depletion of Necdin in human cells did not induce a senescence-like growth arrest nor a flat morphology or SA-β-galactosidase activity normally associated with senescence. Similarly, overexpression of Necdin did not affect the life span of IMR90 cells. However, we demonstrate that in normal human cells, Necdin expression mimicked the effect of p53 inactivation by increasing radioresistance.This result suggests that Necdin potentially attenuate p53 signaling in response to genotoxic stress in human cells and supports similar results describing an inhibitory function of Necdin over p53-dependent growth arrest in mice.
|Necdin protects embryonic motoneurons from programmed cell death.|
Aebischer, J; Sturny, R; Andrieu, D; Rieusset, A; Schaller, F; Geib, S; Raoul, C; Muscatelli, F
PloS one 6 e23764 2011
NECDIN belongs to the type II Melanoma Associated Antigen Gene Expression gene family and is located in the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) critical region. Necdin-deficient mice develop symptoms of PWS, including a sensory and motor deficit. However, the mechanisms underlying the motor deficit remain elusive. Here, we show that the genetic ablation of Necdin, whose expression is restricted to post-mitotic neurons in the spinal cord during development, leads to a loss of 31% of specified motoneurons. The increased neuronal loss occurs during the period of naturally-occurring cell death and is not confined to specific pools of motoneurons. To better understand the role of Necdin during the period of programmed cell death of motoneurons we used embryonic spinal cord explants and primary motoneuron cultures from Necdin-deficient mice. Interestingly, while Necdin-deficient motoneurons present the same survival response to neurotrophic factors, we demonstrate that deletion of Necdin leads to an increased susceptibility of motoneurons to neurotrophic factor deprivation. We show that by neutralizing TNFα this increased susceptibility of Necdin-deficient motoneurons to trophic factor deprivation can be reduced to the normal level. We propose that Necdin is implicated through the TNF-receptor 1 pathway in the developmental death of motoneurons.
|Disorganized epithelial polarity and excess trophectoderm cell fate in preimplantation embryos lacking E-cadherin.|
Stephenson RO, Yamanaka Y, Rossant J
Development 137 3383-91. Epub 2010 Sep 8. 2010
The first two cell lineages in the mouse, the surface trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), are morphologically distinguishable by E3.5, with the outer TE forming a polarized epithelial layer enclosing the apolar ICM. We show here that in mouse embryos completely lacking both maternal and zygotic E-cadherin (cadherin 1), the normal epithelial morphology of outside cells is disrupted, but individual cells still initiate TE- and ICM-like fates. A larger proportion of cells than normal showed expression of TE markers such as Cdx2, suggesting that formation of an organized epithelium is not necessary for TE-specific gene expression. Individual cells in such embryos still generated an apical domain that correlated with elevated Cdx2 expression. We also show that repolarization can occur in isolated early ICMs from both wild-type and Cdx2 mutant embryos, indicating that Cdx2 is not required for initiating polarity. The results demonstrate that epithelial integrity mediated by E-cadherin is not required for Cdx2 expression, but is essential for the normal allocation of TE and ICM cells. They also show that Cdx2 expression is strongly linked to apical membrane polarization.
|A single postnatal injection of oxytocin rescues the lethal feeding behaviour in mouse newborns deficient for the imprinted Magel2 gene.|
Schaller, F; Watrin, F; Sturny, R; Massacrier, A; Szepetowski, P; Muscatelli, F
Human molecular genetics 19 4895-905 2010
The onset of feeding at birth is a vital step for the adaptation of the neonate to extra uterine life. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder caused by the alteration of several imprinted contiguous genes including MAGEL2. PWS presents with various clinical manifestations, including poor suckling behaviour and feeding problems in neonates. Hypothalamic defects have been proposed, but the pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report that a Magel2-deficient mouse with 50% neonatal mortality had an altered onset of suckling activity and subsequent impaired feeding, suggesting a role of MAGEL2 in the suckling deficit seen in PW newborns. The hypothalamus of Magel2 mutant neonates showed a significant reduction in oxytocin (OT). Furthermore, injection of a specific OT receptor antagonist in wild-type neonates recapitulated the feeding deficiency seen in Magel2 mutants, and a single injection of OT, 3-5 h after birth, rescued the phenotype of Magel2 mutant pups, allowing all of them to survive. Our study illustrates the crucial role of feeding onset behaviour after birth. We propose that OT supply might constitute a promising avenue for the treatment of feeding difficulties in PW neonates and potentially of other newborns with impaired feeding onset.
|The MAGE proteins: emerging roles in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neurogenetic disease.|
Barker, Philip A and Salehi, Amir
J. Neurosci. Res., 67: 705-12 (2002) 2002
|Necdin acts as a transcriptional repressor that interacts with multiple guanosine clusters.|
Matsumoto, K, et al.
Gene, 272: 173-9 (2001) 2001
Necdin is a growth suppressor expressed predominantly in postmitotic neurons, and ectopic expression of this protein suppresses cell growth. Here we report that Necdin directly binds to specific DNA sequences and serves as a transcriptional repressor. Polyhistidine-tagged Necdin was used for selection of random-sequence oligonucleotides by polymerase chain reaction-based amplification. Necdin recognized guanosine (G)-rich sequences that encompass multiple G clusters and intervening mono- or di-nucleotides of A, T and C. These sequences, termed GN boxes, resemble multiply aligned forms of the canonical GC box which is recognized by Sp family members. Necdin directly bound to a GN box consisting of contiguous two GC boxes with four G clusters, but not to a single GC box with two G clusters, whereas Sp1 bound to both. In a reporter system using Drosophila Schneider Line 2 cells, Necdin repressed Sp1-dependent activity of mouse c-myc P1 promoter that contains a typical GN box. Deletion of the GN box from the c-myc P1 promoter or its conversion to the single GC box abolished the Necdin-dependent repression. These results suggest that Necdin modulates gene transcription via the GN box that is potentially recognized by GC box-targeting Sp family members.