Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||ICC, IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 2144405||2144405|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 2459610||2459610|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 16486||16486|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 16941||16941|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 17108||17108|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 17471||17471|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 18272||18272|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 18635||18635|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 19132||19132|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine - 2019733||2019733|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice.|
Kim, JW; Ku, SK; Kim, KY; Kim, SG; Han, MH; Kim, GY; Hwang, HJ; Kim, BW; Kim, CM; Choi, YH
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2015 872428 2015
The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.
|Predictive Potential of Twenty-Two Biochemical Biomarkers for Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.|
Pereira, EC; Bertolami, MC; Faludi, AA; Monte, O; Xavier, HT; Pereira, TV; Abdalla, DS
International journal of endocrinology 2015 146816 2015
We investigated the potential of a panel of 22 biomarkers to predict the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients. The study enrolled 96 DM2 patients with (n = 75) and without (n = 21) evidence of CAD. We assessed a biochemical profile that included 22 biomarkers: total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, LDL/HDL, triglycerides, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fructosamine, homocysteine, cysteine, methionine, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione, L-arginine, asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, symmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine/L-arginine, nitrate plus nitrite, S-nitrosothiols, nitrotyrosine, and n-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. Prediction models were built using logistic regression models. We found that eight biomarkers (methionine, nitratate plus nitrite, n-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, BMI, LDL, HDL, reduced glutathione, and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine) along with gender and BMI were significantly associated with the odds of CAD in DM2. These preliminary findings support the notion that emerging biochemical markers might be used for CAD prediction in patients with DM2. Our findings warrant further investigation with large, well-designed studies.
|Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.|
Bricker-Anthony, C; Rex, TS
PloS one 10 e0131921 2015
Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.
|IL-13 overexpression in mouse lungs triggers systemic genotoxicity in peripheral blood.|
Chapmana, AM; Malkin, DJ; Camacho, J; Schiestl, RH
Mutation research 769 100-7 2014
Asthma is a common heterogeneous disease with both genetic and environmental factors that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Activated type 2 helper T cells secrete a panel of cytokines, including IL-13, a central immune regulator of many of the hallmark type 2 disease characteristics found in asthma. IL-13 has been directly implicated as a potent stimulator of asthma induced airway remodeling. Although IL-13 is known to play a major role in the development and persistence of asthma, the complex combination of environmental and genetic origin of the disease obfuscate the solitary role of IL-13 in the disease. We therefore, used a genetically modified mouse model which conditionally overexpresses IL-13 in the lungs to study the independent role of IL-13 in the progression of asthma. Our results demonstrate IL-13 is associated with a systemic induction of genotoxic parameters such as oxidative DNA damage, single and double DNA strand breaks, micronucleus formation, and protein nitration. Furthermore we show that inflammation induced genotoxicity found in asthma extends beyond the primary site of the lung to circulating leukocytes and erythroblasts in the bone marrow eliciting systemic effects driven by IL-13 over-expression.
|Direct exposure of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma confers simultaneous oxidative and ultraviolet modifications in biomolecules.|
Okazaki, Y; Wang, Y; Tanaka, H; Mizuno, M; Nakamura, K; Kajiyama, H; Kano, H; Uchida, K; Kikkawa, F; Hori, M; Toyokuni, S
Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 55 207-15 2014
Thermal plasmas and lasers are used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, little research has been done into the use of this technique for conventional free radical biology. Recently, we developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping revealed (•)OH as a major product. To obtain evidence of NEAPP-induced oxidative modifications in biomolecules and standardize them, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and α-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also observed after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in saline produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment.
|Liver X receptor agonist treatment attenuates cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.|
He, Q; Pu, J; Yuan, A; Yao, T; Ying, X; Zhao, Y; Xu, L; Tong, H; He, B
Cardiovascular diabetology 13 149 2014
Liver X receptor (LXR) plays a critical regulatory role in metabolism and inflammation, and has been demonstrated to be involved in cardiovascular physiology/pathology. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GW3965, a potent LXR agonist, on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.Non-diabetic db/+ mice and diabetic db/db mice received either vehicle or LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. Systemic insulin resistance was evaluated by glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. Endpoint cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and catheterization. Ventricular tissue was collected for histology and gene/protein expression analysis. Untreated db/db diabetic mice exhibited diastolic dysfunction with adverse structural remodeling (including myocardial fibrosis and increased apoptosis). Treatment with GW3965 remarkably attenuated myocardial dysfunction and structural remodeling in diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, GW3965 restored Akt phosphorylation and inhibited MAP kinases phosphorylation, and reduced oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammation response in the diabetic myocardium.Our data demonstrate that GW3965 exerts a cardioprotective effect against DCM by (at least in part) attenuating insulin resistance, modulating Akt and MAP kinases pathways, and reducing oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory response. These findings strongly suggest that LXR agonist may have therapeutic potential in treating DCM.
|2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is selectively toxic to primary dopaminergic neurons in vitro.|
Griggs, AM; Agim, ZS; Mishra, VR; Tambe, MA; Director-Myska, AE; Turteltaub, KW; McCabe, GP; Rochet, JC; Cannon, JR
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 140 179-89 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4'-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4'-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress.
|Mycobacteria counteract a TLR-mediated nitrosative defense mechanism in a zebrafish infection model.|
Elks, PM; van der Vaart, M; van Hensbergen, V; Schutz, E; Redd, MJ; Murayama, E; Spaink, HP; Meijer, AH
PloS one 9 e100928 2014
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a major world health problem. The production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a potent cytostatic and cytotoxic defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. Nevertheless, the protective role of RNS during Mtb infection remains controversial. Here we use an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody as a readout to study nitration output by the zebrafish host during early mycobacterial pathogenesis. We found that recognition of Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mtb, was sufficient to induce a nitrosative defense mechanism in a manner dependent on MyD88, the central adaptor protein in Toll like receptor (TLR) mediated pathogen recognition. However, this host response was attenuated by mycobacteria via a virulence mechanism independent of the well-characterized RD1 virulence locus. Our results indicate a mechanism of pathogenic mycobacteria to circumvent host defense in vivo. Shifting the balance of host-pathogen interactions in favor of the host by targeting this virulence mechanism may help to alleviate the problem of infection with Mtb strains that are resistant to multiple drug treatments.
|Molecular changes and vision loss in a mouse model of closed-globe blast trauma.|
Bricker-Anthony, C; Hines-Beard, J; Rex, TS
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 55 4853-62 2014
To characterize retinal changes and assess vision after an eye-directed air blast.Adult C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a blast directed at one eye. Optical coherence tomography and histology were performed to assess retina and optic nerve integrity. Cell death, oxidative stress, and glial reactivity were examined by immunohistochemistry. Visual changes were measured by ERG recordings and the optokinetic reflex.In the outer retina, eye blast caused retinal pigment epithelium vacuoles and rare retinal detachments followed by regional cell death. Labeling for nitrotyrosine and markers of pyroptosis (caspase-1) and necroptosis (receptor-interacting protein kinases-1, -3) increased, primarily in the inner retina, after blast. Caspase-1 labeling was restricted primarily to the starburst amacrine cells. A few degenerating axons were detected at 28 days post blast. Despite a lack of substantial cell death or decreased ERG, there was a deficit in visual acuity after blast.Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cell death became increasingly prevalent, over time post blast suggestive of an ongoing neurodegenerative response. Outer retinal changes either resolved or remained focal. In contrast, inner retinal changes were more robust and spread from focal regions to the entire retina over time post blast. Our model of eye blast trauma causes molecular changes and a decrease in visual acuity within the first month post blast despite a lack of overt eye injury. This subtle response matches the delayed presentation of visual deficits in some blast-exposed Veterans.
|Pomegranate juice exacerbates oxidative stress and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease.|
Tapias, V; Cannon, JR; Greenamyre, JT
Neurobiology of aging 35 1162-76 2014
Numerous factors contribute to the death of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Compelling evidence implicates mitochondrial deficiency, oxidative stress, and inflammation as important pathogenic factors in PD. Chronic exposure of rats to rotenone causes a PD-like syndrome, in part by causing oxidative damage and inflammation in substantia nigra. Pomegranate juice (PJ) has the greatest composite antioxidant potency index among beverages, and it has been demonstrated to have protective effects in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to examine the potential neuroprotective effects of PJ in the rotenone model of PD. Oral administration of PJ did not mitigate or prevent experimental PD but instead increased nigrostriatal terminal depletion, DA neuron loss, the inflammatory response, and caspase activation, thereby heightening neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying this effect are uncertain, but the finding that PJ per se enhanced nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and activated caspase-3 expression in nigral DA neurons is consistent with its potential pro-oxidant activity.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress|
|White Paper- Modern Methods in Oxidative Stress Research|