|Replacement Information||04-395 is the recommended replacement for Discontinued catalog number 06-902|
Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R||IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-PAK3 Antibody, NT|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Detect PAK3 using this Anti-PAK3 Antibody, NT validated for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-PAK3, NT - 17670||17670|
|Anti-PAK3, NT - 20628||20628|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Activity-dependent rapid local RhoA synthesis is required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity.|
Briz, V; Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Liu, Y; Avetisyan, M; Bi, X; Baudry, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 2269-82 2015
Dendritic protein synthesis and actin cytoskeleton reorganization are important events required for the consolidation of hippocampal LTP and memory. However, the temporal and spatial relationships between these two processes remain unclear. Here, we report that treatment of adult rat hippocampal slices with BDNF or with tetraethylammonium (TEA), which induces a chemical form of LTP, produces a rapid and transient increase in RhoA protein levels. Changes in RhoA were restricted to dendritic spines of CA3 and CA1 and require de novo protein synthesis regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). BDNF-mediated stimulation of RhoA activity, cofilin phosphorylation, and actin polymerization were completely suppressed by protein synthesis inhibitors. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injections of RhoA antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibited theta burst stimulation (TBS)-induced RhoA upregulation in dendritic spines and prevented LTP consolidation. Addition of calpain inhibitors after BDNF or TEA treatment maintained RhoA levels elevated and prolonged the effects of BDNF and TEA on actin polymerization. Finally, the use of isoform-selective calpain inhibitors revealed that calpain-2 was involved in RhoA synthesis, whereas calpain-1 mediated RhoA degradation. Overall, this mechanism provides a novel link between dendritic protein synthesis and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in hippocampal dendritic spines during LTP consolidation.
|LTP induction translocates cortactin at distant synapses in wild-type but not Fmr1 knock-out mice.|
Seese, RR; Babayan, AH; Katz, AM; Cox, CD; Lauterborn, JC; Lynch, G; Gall, CM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 7403-13 2012
Stabilization of long-term potentiation (LTP) depends on reorganization of the dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton. The present study tested whether this involves activity-driven effects on the actin-regulatory protein cortactin, and whether such effects are disturbed in the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) model of fragile X syndrome, in which stabilization of both actin filaments and LTP is impaired. LTP induced by theta burst stimulation (TBS) in hippocampal slices from wild-type mice was associated with rapid, broadly distributed, and NMDA receptor-dependent decreases in synapse-associated cortactin. The reduction in cortactin content was blocked by blebbistatin, while basal levels were reduced by nocodazole, indicating that cortactin's movements into and away from synapses are regulated by microtubule and actomyosin motors, respectively. These results further suggest that synapse-specific LTP influences cytoskeletal elements at distant connections. The rapid effects of TBS on synaptic cortactin content were absent in Fmr1 KOs as was evidence for activity-driven phosphorylation of the protein or its upstream kinase, ERK1/2. Phosphorylation regulates cortactin's interactions with actin, and coprecipitation of the two proteins was reduced in the KOs. We propose that, in the KOs, excessive basal phosphorylation of ERK1/2 disrupts its interactions with cortactin, thereby blocking the latter protein's use of actomyosin transport systems. These impairments are predicted to compromise the response of the subsynaptic cytoskeleton to learning-related afferent activity, both locally and at distant sites.
|Physiological activation of synaptic Rac>PAK (p-21 activated kinase) signaling is defective in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.|
Chen, LY; Rex, CS; Babayan, AH; Kramár, EA; Lynch, G; Gall, CM; Lauterborn, JC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 10977-84 2010
The abnormal spine morphology found in fragile X syndrome (FXS) is suggestive of an error in the signaling cascades that organize the actin cytoskeleton. We report here that physiological activation of the small GTPase Rac1 and its effector p-21 activated kinase (PAK), two enzymes critically involved in actin management and functional synaptic plasticity, is impaired at hippocampal synapses in the Fmr1-knock-out (KO) mouse model of FXS. Theta burst afferent stimulation (TBS) caused a marked increase in the number of synapses associated with phosphorylated PAK in adult hippocampal slices from wild-type, but not Fmr1-KO, mice. Stimulation-induced activation of synaptic Rac1 was also absent in the mutants. The polymerization of spine actin that occurs immediately after theta stimulation appeared normal in mutant slices but the newly formed polymers did not properly stabilize, as evidenced by a prolonged vulnerability to a toxin (latrunculin) that disrupts dynamic actin filaments. Latrunculin also reversed long-term potentiation when applied at 10 min post-TBS, a time point at which the potentiation effect is resistant to interference in wild-type slices. We propose that a Racgreater than PAK signaling pathway needed for rapid stabilization of activity-induced actin filaments, and thus for normal spine morphology and lasting synaptic changes, is defective in FXS.
|Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes long-term potentiation-related cytoskeletal changes in adult hippocampus.|
Rex, CS; Lin, CY; Kramár, EA; Chen, LY; Gall, CM; Lynch, G
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 3017-29 2007
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an extremely potent, positive modulator of theta burst induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the adult hippocampus. The present studies tested whether the neurotrophin exerts its effects by facilitating cytoskeletal changes in dendritic spines. BDNF caused no changes in phalloidin labeling of filamentous actin (F-actin) when applied alone to rat hippocampal slices but markedly enhanced the number of densely labeled spines produced by a threshold level of theta burst stimulation. Conversely, the BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc completely blocked increases in spine F-actin produced by suprathreshold levels of theta stimulation. TrkB-Fc also blocked LTP consolidation when applied 1-2 min, but not 10 min, after theta trains. Additional experiments confirmed that p21 activated kinase and cofilin, two actin-regulatory proteins implicated in spine morphogenesis, are concentrated in spines in mature hippocampus and further showed that both undergo rapid, dose-dependent phosphorylation after infusion of BDNF. These results demonstrate that the influence of BDNF on the actin cytoskeleton is retained into adulthood in which it serves to positively modulate the time-dependent LTP consolidation process.
|Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP.|
Chen, LY; Rex, CS; Casale, MS; Gall, CM; Lynch, G
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 5363-72 2007
Stabilization of long-term potentiation (LTP) is commonly proposed to involve changes in synaptic morphology and reorganization of the spine cytoskeleton. Here we tested whether, as predicted from this hypothesis, induction of LTP by theta-burst stimulation activates an actin regulatory pathway and alters synapse morphology within the same dendritic spines. TBS increased severalfold the numbers of spines containing phosphorylated (p) p21-activated kinase (PAK) or its downstream target cofilin; the latter regulates actin filament assembly. The PAK/cofilin phosphoproteins were increased at 2 min but not 30 s post-TBS, peaked at 7 min, and then declined. Double immunostaining for the postsynaptic density protein PSD95 revealed that spines with high pPAK or pCofilin levels had larger synapses (+60-70%) with a more normal size frequency distribution than did neighboring spines. Based on these results and simulations of shape changes to synapse-like objects, we propose that theta stimulation markedly increases the probability that a spine will enter a state characterized by a large, ovoid synapse and that this morphology is important for expression and later stabilization of LTP.
|PAK3 mutation in nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation.|
Allen, K M, et al.
Nat. Genet., 20: 25-30 (1998) 1998
|Identification of a mouse p21Cdc42/Rac activated kinase.|
Bagrodia, S, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 270: 22731-7 (1995) 1995