Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Inv, Vrt||FC||M||FITC||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Store at +4°C protected from light. DO NOT FREEZE. For long term use and storage aliquot conjugate into small volumes and store at +4°C.|
|Material Size||100 assays|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|PCNA/cyclin expression and BrdU uptake define different subpopulations in different cell lines.|
Coltrera, M D and Gown, A M
J. Histochem. Cytochem., 39: 23-30 (1991) 1991
Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to a 36 KD protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA/cyclin), have been previously shown to be capable of identifying proliferating cells in vitro as well as in alcohol-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. The routine use of these anti-PCNA/cyclin MAb in investigative studies and in diagnostic pathology requires a clearer understanding of the distribution of PCNA/cyclin in the different cell populations found in tissue specimens. We therefore compared the ability of MAb to three nucleus-associated proliferation markers (MAb 19A2 to PCNA/cyclin; Ki-67 to an undefined proliferation-related marker; BU-1 to 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporated into DNA) to identify the proliferating cell fraction of various cells in vitro. The cell lines were chosen to represent a spectrum of proliferation rates (high to low) and cell lineage (mesenchymal vs epithelial, non-transformed vs malignant): (a) HeLa and A-431 (two malignant carcinoma cell lines with high proliferation rates); (b) SK-5 (a non-transformed fibroblast cell line with a low proliferation rate); (c) HUVE (a non-transformed human umbilical vein endothelial cell line with a low proliferation rate). Single and double labeling immunofluorescence studies were performed after uniform 1-hr incubations with BrdU. Comparison of the overlapping distributions of detectable PCNA/cyclin expression and BrdU incorporation demonstrated substantial qualitative and quantitative differences between the different cell lines. In two of the four cell lines (HeLa, A-431) the BrdU staining distributions formed inclusive subsets of the PCNA-positive cell populations. In the HUVE cell line the two populations overlapped incompletely. In one cell line, SK-5, the two populations were mutually exclusive. MAb Ki-67 demonstrated a pattern in the SK-5 cell line that was strongly predictive of PCNA positivity, while showing no associated patterns in the other three cell lines. We conclude that PCNA/cyclin expression detected by MAb may define different cell subpopulations in different cell types relative to those incorporating BrdU or expressing the target antigen for Ki-67. This has implications for the clinical study of mixed cell populations using these antibodies.
|Monoclonal antibody analysis of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Structural conservation and the detection of a nucleolar form.|
Waseem, N H and Lane, D P
J. Cell. Sci., 96 ( Pt 1): 121-9 (1990) 1990
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, has recently been identified as the polymerase delta accessory protein. PCNA is essential for cellular DNA synthesis and is also required for the in vitro replication of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA where it acts to coordinate leading and lagging strand synthesis at the replication fork. The cDNA for rat PCNA was cloned into a series of bacterial expression vectors and the resulting protein used to immunize mice. Eleven new monoclonal antibodies to PCNA have been isolated and characterized. Some of the antibodies recognize epitopes conserved from man to fission yeast. Immunocytochemical analysis of primate epithelial cell lines showed that the antibodies recognized antigenically distinct forms of PCNA and that these forms were localized to different compartments of the nucleus. One antibody reacted exclusively with PCNA in the nucleolus. These results suggest that the PCNA protein may fulfil several separate roles in the cell nucleus associated with changes in its antigenic structure.
|Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin in activated human T lymphocytes.|
Kurki, P, et al.
J. Immunol., 138: 4114-20 (1987) 1987
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), also called cyclin, is an intranuclear polypeptide whose synthesis reaches its maximum during the S-phase of the cell cycle. PCNA is expressed in several kinds of proliferating cells, one of which is the mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocyte. PCNA expression increases from the late G1 phase through the S-phase of the cell cycle. This study is focused on the regulation of PCNA expression during the G1 phase of human T lymphocytes and on the relationship between PCNA expression and the rate of T cell proliferation. Special use is made of human autoantibodies to PCNA and the development of flow cytometry to label this intranuclear polypeptide. Unstimulated purified human peripheral blood T cells were PCNA negative. T cells treated with monoclonal antibody (64.1) to the CD3 complex expressed receptors for IL 2 but did not express PCNA until exogenous IL 2 was added to the culture. PCNA expression as well as the entry of the cells into S-phase could be inhibited by IL 2 receptor antibodies. Transferrin receptors were expressed only in T cells that were stimulated with both 64.1 and exogenous IL 2. Transferrin receptors were detectable before the cells expressed PCNA. Thus, the onset of PCNA expression is a phase in cell proliferation that follows transferrin receptor expression but preceded DNA synthesis. Drugs like dexamethasone and cyclosporin, which affect the early part of G1, inhibited PCNA expression; whereas cytarabine (ara-C) and hydroxyurea, which affect the S-phase and prevent DNA synthesis, did not block PCNA expression. There was a close correlation between the number of PCNA-positive cells and the number of S-phase cells in unperturbed T cell cultures. The highest level of PCNA expression was seen in cells that were in the first cycle after stimulation. The results show that PCNA expression is regulated by a signal after IL 2 binding and that PCNA labeling is a precise indicator for human T cells that are committed to DNA synthesis. Comparing these results with previous observations on the expression of some other activation-associated antigens, we suggest that the onset of PCNA expression represents a discrete step in T cell activation.
|Immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in solid human malignancies.|
Robbins, B A, et al.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 111: 841-5 (1987) 1987
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), also known as cyclin, is a cell cycle-related nuclear protein that is maximally elevated in late G1 and S phases of proliferating cells. In this study, PCNA was identified by paraffin-section immunohistochemistry in 42 of 64 solid human malignancies, and in several benign tissues known to contain proliferating cells. The PCNA-positive nuclei were randomly distributed and ranged from less than 1% (in most cases) to more than 20% of the neoplastic cells. In general, PCNA positivity correlated with mitotic activity and tumor grade. Further study is necessary to evaluate PCNA as a marker of cellular proliferation and a potential prognostic marker in human malignancy.
|Cyclin: a nuclear protein whose level correlates directly with the proliferative state of normal as well as transformed cells.|
Celis, J E, et al.
Leuk. Res., 8: 143-57 (1984) 1984
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN PROLIFERATION CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FITC CONJUGATED|