|Functional redundancy of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits in maintaining vascular endothelial cells in the adult heart.|
Willis, MS; Homeister, JW; Rosson, GB; Annayev, Y; Holley, D; Holly, SP; Madden, VJ; Godfrey, V; Parise, LV; Bultman, SJ
Mating type switching/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complexes utilize either BRG1 or BRM as a catalytic subunit to alter nucleosome position and regulate gene expression. BRG1 is required for vascular endothelial cell (VEC) development and embryonic survival, whereas BRM is dispensable.To circumvent embryonic lethality and study Brg1 function in adult tissues, we used conditional gene targeting. To evaluate possible Brg1-Brm redundancy, we analyzed Brg1 mutant mice on wild-type and Brm-deficient backgrounds.The inducible Mx1-Cre driver was used to mutate Brg1 in adult mice. These conditional-null mutants exhibited a tissue-specific phenotype and unanticipated functional compensation between Brg1 and Brm. Brg1 single mutants were healthy and had a normal lifespan, whereas Brg1/Brm double mutants exhibited cardiovascular defects and died within 1 month. BRG1 and BRM were required for the viability of VECs but not other cell types where both genes were also knocked out. The VEC phenotype was most evident in the heart, particularly in the microvasculature of the outer myocardium, and was recapitulated in primary cells ex vivo. VEC death resulted in vascular leakage, cardiac hemorrhage, secondary death of cardiomyocytes due to ischemia, and ventricular dissections.BRG1-catalyzed SWI/SNF complexes are particularly important in cardiovascular tissues. However, in contrast to embryonic development, in which Brm does not compensate, Brg1 is required in adult VECs only when Brm is also mutated. These results demonstrate for the first time that Brm functionally compensates for Brg1 in vivo and that there are significant changes in the relative importance of BRG1- and BRM-catalyzed SWI/SNF complexes during the development of an essential cell lineage.
|In vitro model of vascularized bone: synergizing vascular development and osteogenesis.|
Correia, C; Grayson, WL; Park, M; Hutton, D; Zhou, B; Guo, XE; Niklason, L; Sousa, RA; Reis, RL; Vunjak-Novakovic, G
Tissue engineering provides unique opportunities for regenerating diseased or damaged tissues using cells obtained from tissue biopsies. Tissue engineered grafts can also be used as high fidelity models to probe cellular and molecular interactions underlying developmental processes. In this study, we co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under various environmental conditions to elicit synergistic interactions leading to the colocalized development of capillary-like and bone-like tissues. Cells were encapsulated at the 1:1 ratio in fibrin gel to screen compositions of endothelial growth medium (EGM) and osteogenic medium (OM). It was determined that, to form both tissues, co-cultures should first be supplied with EGM followed by a 1:1 cocktail of the two media types containing bone morphogenetic protein-2. Subsequent studies of HUVECs and MSCs cultured in decellularized, trabecular bone scaffolds for 6 weeks assessed the effects on tissue construct of both temporal variations in growth-factor availability and addition of fresh cells. The resulting grafts were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to determine the phenotype stability and functionality of engineered vessels. Two important findings resulted from these studies: (i) vascular development needs to be induced prior to osteogenesis, and (ii) the addition of additional hMSCs at the osteogenic induction stage improves both tissue outcomes, as shown by increased bone volume fraction, osteoid deposition, close proximity of bone proteins to vascular networks, and anastomosis of vascular networks with the host vasculature. Interestingly, these observations compare well with what has been described for native development. We propose that our cultivation system can mimic various aspects of endothelial cell-osteogenic precursor interactions in vivo, and could find utility as a model for studies of heterotypic cellular interactions that couple blood vessel formation with osteogenesis.Full Text Article