Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-PKC ζ Antibody|
|Presentation||antiserum containing 23% glycerol and 0.05% sodium azide|
|Application||Detect PKC ζ using this Anti-PKC ζ Antibody validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Anti-PKC zeta - 2383530||2383530|
|Anti-PKC zeta - 2025016||2025016|
|Anti-PKC zeta - 2073121||2073121|
|Anti-PKC zeta - 2225240||2225240|
|Anti-PKC zeta - JBC1810822||JBC1810822|
|Anti-PKC zeta - JBC1936136||JBC1936136|
|Anti-PKC zeta - JBC1945031||JBC1945031|
|Anti-PKC zeta -2639382||2639382|
|Anti-PKC zeta Polyclonal Antibody||2978134|
|Anti-PKC zeta; - 22080||22080|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Phenotypical analysis of atypical PKCs in vivo function display a compensatory system at mouse embryonic day 7.5.|
Seidl, S; Braun, U; Roos, N; Li, S; Lüdtke, TH; Kispert, A; Leitges, M
PloS one 8 e62756 2013
The atypical protein kinases C (PKC) isoforms ι/λ and ζ play crucial roles in many cellular processes including development, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Possible redundancy between the two isoforms has always been an issue since most biochemical tools do not differentiate between the two proteins. Thus, much effort has been made during the last decades to characterize the functions of aPKCs using gene targeting approaches and depletion studies. However, little is known about the specific roles of each isoform in mouse development.To evaluate the importance of PKCι in mouse development we designed PKCι deletion mutants using the gene targeting approach. We show that the deletion of PKCι, results in a reduced size of the amniotic cavity at E7.5 and impaired growth of the embryo at E8.5 with subsequent absorption of the embryo. Our data also indicate an impaired localization of ZO-1 and disorganized structure of the epithelial tissue in the embryo. Importantly, using electron microscopy, embryoid body formation and immunofluorescence analysis, we found, that in the absence of PKCι, tight junctions and apico-basal polarity were still established. Finally, our study points to a non-redundant PKCι function at E9.5, since expression of PKCζ is able to rescue the E7.5 phenotype, but could not prevent embryonic lethality at a later time-point (E9.5).Our data show that PKCι is crucial for mouse embryogenesis but is dispensable for the establishment of polarity and tight junction formation. We present a compensatory function of PKCζ at E7.5, rescuing the phenotype. Furthermore, this study indicates at least one specific, yet unknown, PKCι function that cannot be compensated by the overexpression of PKCζ at E9.5.
|Laminin 511 partners with laminin 332 to mediate directional migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells.|
Greciano, PG; Moyano, JV; Buschmann, MM; Tang, J; Lu, Y; Rudnicki, J; Manninen, A; Matlin, KS
Molecular biology of the cell 23 121-36 2012
Sustained directional migration of epithelial cells is essential for regeneration of injured epithelia. Front-rear polarity of migrating cells is determined by local activation of a signaling network involving Cdc42 and other factors in response to spatial cues from the environment, the nature of which are obscure. We examined the roles of laminin (LM)-511 and LM-332, two structurally different laminin isoforms, in the migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by suppressing expression of their α subunits using RNA interference. We determined that knockdown of LM-511 inhibits directional migration and destabilizes cell-cell contacts, in part by disturbing the localization and activity of the polarization machinery. Suppression of integrin α3, a laminin receptor subunit, in cells synthesizing normal amounts of both laminins has a similar effect as knockdown of LM-511. Surprisingly, simultaneous suppression of both laminin α5 and laminin α3 restores directional migration and cell-cell contact stability, suggesting that cells recognize a haptotactic gradient formed by a combination of laminins.
|Inhibition of PKMzeta in nucleus accumbens core abolishes long-term drug reward memory.|
Li, YQ; Xue, YX; He, YY; Li, FQ; Xue, LF; Xu, CM; Sacktor, TC; Shaham, Y; Lu, L
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 5436-46 2011
During abstinence, memories of drug-associated cues persist for many months, and exposure to these cues often provokes relapse to drug use. The mechanisms underlying the maintenance of these memories are unknown. A constitutively active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme, protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ), is required for maintenance of spatial memory, conditioned taste aversion, and other memory forms. We used conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned place aversion (CPA) procedures to study the role of nucleus accumbens PKMζ in the maintenance of drug reward and aversion memories in rats. Morphine CPP training (10 mg/kg, 4 pairings) increased PKMζ levels in accumbens core but not shell. Injections of the PKMζ inhibitor ζ inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into accumbens core but not shell after CPP training blocked morphine CPP expression for up to 14 d after injections. This effect was mimicked by the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, which inhibits PKMζ, but not by the conventional and novel PKC inhibitor staurosporine, which does not effectively inhibit PKMζ. ZIP injections into accumbens core after training also blocked the expression of cocaine (10 mg/kg) and high-fat food CPP but had no effect on CPA induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Accumbens core injections of Tat-GluR2(3Y), which inhibits GluR2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis, prevented the impairment in morphine CPP induced by local ZIP injections, indicating that the persistent effect of PKMζ is on GluR2-containing AMPA receptors. Results indicate that PKMζ activity in accumbens core is a critical cellular substrate for the maintenance of memories of relapse-provoking reward cues during prolonged abstinence periods.
|DNA topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide, enhances GC-box-dependent promoter activity via Sp1 phosphorylation.|
Ichiro Niina, Takeshi Uchiumi, Hiroto Izumi, Takayuki Torigoe, Tetsuro Wakasugi, Tomonori Igarashi, Naoya Miyamoto, Takamitsu Onitsuka, Masaki Shiota, Ryuichi Okayasu, Kazuo Chijiiwa, Kimitoshi Kohno
Cancer science 98 858-63 2007
Modification of transcription factors by anticancer agents plays an important role in both apoptotic and survival signaling. Here we report that both DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitors such as SN-38 and etoposide, but not cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil or actinomycin D, can induce phosphorylation of the transcription factor Sp1. Furthermore, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors were shown to transactivate GC-box-dependent promoters such as the SV40 and vascular endothelial growth factor promoters. The phosphorylated form of Sp1 was detectable within 30 min of etoposide treatment and was greatly diminished by the presence of the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) knockdown. We also confirmed that the phosphorylated form of DNA-PK was increased by treatment with both etoposide and SN-38. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a novel genomic response to anticancer agents that induce Sp1 phosphorylation, and might contribute to tumor progression and drug resistance.
|The interaction of mPar3 with the ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity.|
Schwamborn, JC; Khazaei, MR; Püschel, AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 35259-68 2007
The Par polarity complex consisting of the evolutionarily conserved proteins mPar3, mPar6, and aPKC regulates cell polarity in many cell types including neurons. Here we show that mPar3 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity and links the Smurf2 to Kinesin-2. The HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 ensures that neurons extend only a single axon by initiating the degradation of inactive Rap1B through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Its interaction with mPar3 is required to localize Smurf2 to growth cones and restrict Rap1B to the axon. Interfering with the binding of mPar3 to Kinesin-2 or Smurf2 to mPar3 and knockdown of mPar3 by RNAi disrupt the establishment of neuronal polarity through the failure to restrict Rap1B to a single neurite.
|Targeted deletion of protein kinase C lambda reveals a distribution of functions between the two atypical protein kinase C isoforms.|
Rachel S Soloff, Carol Katayama, Meei Yun Lin, James R Feramisco, Stephen M Hedrick
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 173 3250-60 2004
Protein kinase C lambda (PKClambda) is an atypical member of the PKC family of serine/threonine kinases with high similarity to the other atypical family member, PKCzeta. This similarity has made it difficult to determine specific roles for the individual atypical isoforms. Both PKClambda and PKCzeta have been implicated in the signal transduction, initiated by mediators of innate immunity, that culminates in the activation of MAPKs and NF-kappaB. In addition, work from invertebrates shows that atypical PKC molecules play a role in embryo development and cell polarity. To determine the unique functions of PKClambda, mice deficient for PKClambda were generated by gene targeting. The ablation of PKClambda results in abnormalities early in gestation with lethality occurring by embryonic day 9. The role of PKClambda in cytokine-mediated cellular activation was studied by making mouse chimeras from PKClambda-deficient embryonic stem cells and C57BL/6 or Rag2-deficient blastocysts. Cell lines derived from these chimeric animals were then used to dissect the role of PKClambda in cytokine responses. Although the mutant cells exhibited alterations in actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, no other phenotypic differences were noted. Contrary to experiments using dominant interfering forms of PKClambda, mutant cells responded normally to TNF, serum, epidermal growth factor, IL-1, and LPS. In addition, no abnormalities were found in T cell development or T cell activation. These data establish that, in vertebrates, the two disparate functions of atypical PKC molecules have been segregated such that PKCzeta mediates signal transduction of the innate immune system and PKClambda is essential for early embryogenesis.
|Activation and translocation of PKCdelta is necessary for VEGF-induced ERK activation through KDR in HEK293T cells.|
Masamitsu Kuriyama, Taizo Taniguchi, Yasuhito Shirai, Atsuo Sasaki, Akihiko Yoshimura, Naoaki Saito
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 325 843-51 2004
VEGF-KDR/Flk-1 signal utilizes the phospholipase C-gamma-protein kinase C (PKC)-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway as the major signaling pathway to induce gene expression and cPLA2 phosphorylation. However, the spatio-temporal activation of a specific PKC isoform induced by VEGF-KDR signal has not been clarified. We used HEK293T (human embryonic kidney) cells expressing transiently KDR to examine the activation mechanism of PKC. PKC specific inhibitors and human PKCdelta knock-down using siRNA method showed that PKCdelta played an important role in VEGF-KDR-induced ERK activation. Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) translocates from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm depending upon phosphorylation by PKC. Translocation of MARCKS-GFP induced by VEGF-KDR stimulus was blocked by rottlerin, a PKCdelta specific inhibitor, or human PKCdelta siRNA. VEGF-KDR stimulation did not induce ERK phosphorylation in human PKCdelta-knockdown HEK293T cells, but co-expression of rat PKCdelta-GFP recovered the ERK phosphorylation. Y311/332F mutant of rat PKCdelta-GFP which cannot be activated by tyrosine-phosphorylation but activated by DAG recovered the ERK phosphorylation, while C1B-deletion mutant of rat PKCdelta-GFP, which can be activated by tyrosine-phosphorylation but not by DAG, failed to recover the ERK phosphorylation in human PKCdelta-knockdown HEK293T cell. These results indicate that PKCdelta is involved in VEGF-KDR-induced ERK activation via C1B domain.
|Connective tissue growth factor [CTGF]/CCN2 stimulates mesangial cell migration through integrated dissolution of focal adhesion complexes and activation of cell polarization.|
Crean, JK; Furlong, F; Finlay, D; Mitchell, D; Murphy, M; Conway, B; Brady, HR; Godson, C; Martin, F
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 18 1541-3 2004
Connective tissue growth factor [CTGF]/CCN2 is a prototypic member of the CCN family of regulatory proteins. CTGF expression is up-regulated in a number of fibrotic diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, where it is believed to act as a downstream mediator of TGF-beta function; however, the exact mechanisms whereby CTGF mediates its effects remain unclear. Here, we describe the role of CTGF in cell migration and actin disassembly in human mesangial cells, a primary target in the development of renal glomerulosclerosis. The addition of CTGF to primary mesangial cells induced cell migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement but had no effect on cell proliferation. Cytoskeletal rearrangement was associated with a loss of focal adhesions, involving tyrosine dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, increased activity of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, with a concomitant decrease in RhoA and Rac1 activity. Conversely, Cdc42 activity was increased by CTGF. These functional responses were associated with the phosphorylation and translocation of protein kinase C-zeta to the leading edge of migrating cells. Inhibition of CTGF-induced protein kinase C-zeta activity with a myristolated PKC-zeta inhibitor prevented cell migration. Moreover, transient transfection of human mesangial cells with a PKC-zeta kinase inactive mutant (dominant negative) expression vector also led to a decrease in CTGF-induced migration compared with wild-type. Furthermore, CTGF stimulated phosphorylation and activation of GSK-3beta. These data highlight for the first time an integrated mechanism whereby CTGF regulates cell migration through facilitative actin cytoskeleton disassembly, which is mediated by dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, loss of RhoA activity, activation of Cdc42, and phosphorylation of PKC-zeta and GSK-3beta. These changes indicate that the initial stages of CTGF mediated mesangial cell migration are similar to those involved in the process of cell polarization. These findings begin to shed mechanistic light on the renal diabetic milieu, where increased CTGF expression in the glomerulus contributes to cellular dysfunction.