|TFF peptides and mucins are major components of dacryoliths.|
Friedrich P Paulsen, Ulrich Schaudig, Alexander Fabian, Dirk Ehrich, Saadettin Sel
Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
PURPOSE: The study was performed to determine whether trefoil factor peptides (TFF) and/or mucins are components of dacryoliths and to gain further insight into dacryolith composition and formation. METHODS: Twenty dacryoliths found in lacrimal surgery in patients suffering from primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were analyzed for the presence of TFF peptides (TFF1, 2, 3), mucins (MUC1, 2, 3, 4, 5AC, 5B, 6, 7, 8), defense cells (T- and B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils), and antimicrobial substances (alpha defensins 1-3, secretory phospholipase A(2)) by means of light microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. RESULTS: All dacryoliths except one revealed clear immunoreactivity for all three TFF peptides. The immunohistochemical distribution of mucins was inhomogeneous throughout the different dacryoliths. However, in some dacryoliths all mucins investigated were detected. MUC8 showed reactivity in 14 out of 15 dacryoliths analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Most dacryoliths contained alpha defensins 1-3 as the secretory product of neutrophils. T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and secretory phospholipase A(2) were only present in single dacryoliths. Quantification of TFF peptide expression supported the immunohistochemical finding that all three TFF peptides are augmented in dacryoliths. CONCLUSIONS: Dacryoliths consist partly of secreted mucins comparable with the mucin spectrum of the epithelium of healthy nasolacrimal ducts. Beside TFF1 and TFF3, both of which are produced under healthy circumstances, TFF2 is additionally induced and secreted in cases of dacryolithiasis. All three TFF peptides appear to be augmented in dacryoliths. With regard to their rheologic properties, TFF peptides may play a functional role in dacryolith formation. However, our results raise the question of whether TFF peptides per se influence dacryolith formation or whether their secretion, as in secretion of mucins and alpha defensins 1-3, is merely a secondary phenomenon.
|Detection of natural peptide antibiotics in human nasolacrimal ducts.|
F P Paulsen, T Pufe, U Schaudig, J Held-Feindt, J Lehmann, J M Schröder, B N Tillmann
Investigative ophthalmology visual science
PURPOSE: To determine the expression and production of antimicrobial peptides by mucosal cells of the lacrimal passage in healthy and pathologic states. METHODS: Detection of bactericidal-permeability-increasing protein (BPI), heparin-binding protein (CAP37), human cationic antimicrobial protein (LL-37), human alpha-defensin 5 (HD5), human alpha-defensin 6 (HD6), human beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1), and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) was performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Intracellular deposition of lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory phospholipase A(2), human neutrophil defensins (HNP-1, -2, and -3), human beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1), and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) was analyzed immunohistochemically. Samples were obtained from 15 patients by surgery and from 10 cadavers. RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed BPI, CAP37, and HBD-1 mRNA in samples of healthy nasolacrimal duct epithelium. Additionally, HBD-2 mRNA was detected in epithelial samples from patients with dacryocystitis. Messenger RNAs for LL-37 and alpha-defensin 5 and 6 were absent in all samples investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory phospholipase A(2), and HNP-1, -2, and -3 to be present in all samples, whereas HBD-1 was present only in some of the healthy and inflamed samples. Immunoreactive HBD-2 peptide was visible only in some of the inflamed samples. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the human efferent tear ducts produce a broad spectrum of antimicrobial peptides. Under inflammatory conditions, changes in the expression pattern occurred, revealing induction of the human inducible defensin HBD-2 and in some cases downregulation of HBD-1 and CAP37. Antimicrobial peptides have a therapeutic potential in dacryocystitis, in that they have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and accelerate epithelial healing. However, caution is appropriate, because defensins also promote fibrin formation and cell proliferation, which are key elements in scarring processes, such as dacryostenosis.