Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ca, R||IP, WB, ICC||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Application||Detect Pals1 using this Anti-Pals1 Antibody validated for use in IP, WB & IC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||1 year at -20°C from date of shipment|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Pals1 (rabbit immunoaffinity purified IgG) - 2239847||2239847|
|Anti-Pals1 (rabbit immunoaffinity purified IgG)||2890847|
|Anti-Pals1 (rabbit immunoaffinity purified IgG)||3006772|
|Anti-Pals1 - 30445||30445|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Neurite Mistargeting and Inverse Order of Intraretinal Vascular Plexus Formation Precede Subretinal Vascularization in Vldlr Mutant Mice.|
Johnson, V; Xiang, M; Chen, Z; Junge, HJ
PloS one 10 e0132013 2015
In the retina blood vessels are required to support a high metabolic rate, however, uncontrolled vascular growth can lead to impaired vision and blindness. Subretinal vascularization (SRV), one type of pathological vessel growth, occurs in retinal angiomatous proliferation and proliferative macular telangiectasia. In these diseases SRV originates from blood vessels within the retina. We use mice with a targeted disruption in the Vldl-receptor (Vldlr) gene as a model to study SRV with retinal origin. We find that Vldlr mRNA is strongly expressed in the neuroretina, and we observe both vascular and neuronal phenotypes in Vldlr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, horizontal cell (HC) neurites are mistargeted prior to SRV in this model, and the majority of vascular lesions are associated with mistargeted neurites. In Foxn4-/- mice, which lack HCs and display reduced amacrine cell (AC) numbers, we find severe defects in intraretinal capillary development. However, SRV is not suppressed in Foxn4-/-;Vldlr-/- mice, which reveals that mistargeted HC neurites are not required for vascular lesion formation. In the absence of VLDLR, the intraretinal capillary plexuses form in an inverse order compared to normal development, and subsequent to this early defect, vascular proliferation is increased. We conclude that SRV in the Vldlr-/- model is associated with mistargeted neurites and that SRV is preceded by altered retinal vascular development.
|Dual function of Yap in the regulation of lens progenitor cells and cellular polarity.|
Song, JY; Park, R; Kim, JY; Hughes, L; Lu, L; Kim, S; Johnson, RL; Cho, SH
Developmental biology 386 281-90 2014
Hippo-Yap signaling has been implicated in organ size determination via its regulation of cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis (Pan, 2007). The vertebrate lens comprises only two major cell types, lens progenitors and differentiated fiber cells, thereby providing a relatively simple system for studying size-controlling mechanisms. In order to investigate the role of Hippo-Yap signaling in lens size regulation, we conditionally ablated Yap in the developing mouse lens. Lens progenitor-specific deletion of Yap led to near obliteration of the lens primarily due to hypocellularity in the lens epithelium (LE) and accompanying lens fiber (LF) defects. A significantly reduced LE progenitor pool resulted mainly from failed self-renewal and increased apoptosis. Additionally, Yap-deficient lens progenitor cells precociously exited the cell cycle and expressed the LF marker, β-Crystallin. The mutant progenitor cells also exhibited multiple cellular and subcellular alterations including cell and nuclear shape change, organellar polarity disruption, and disorganized apical polarity complex and junction proteins such as Crumbs, Pals1, Par3 and ZO-1. Yap-deficient LF cells failed to anchor to the overlying LE layer, impairing their normal elongation and packaging. Furthermore, our localization study results suggest that, in the developing LE, Yap participates in the cell context-dependent transition from the proliferative to differentiation-competent state by integrating cell density information. Taken together, our results shed new light on Yap's indispensable and novel organizing role in mammalian organ size control by coordinating multiple events including cell proliferation, differentiation, and polarity.
|Participation of the cell polarity protein PALS1 to T-cell receptor-mediated NF-κB activation.|
Carvalho, Gabrielle, et al.
PLoS ONE, 6: e18159 (2011) 2011
Beside their established function in shaping cell architecture, some cell polarity proteins were proposed to participate to lymphocyte migration, homing, scanning, as well as activation following antigen receptor stimulation. Although PALS1 is a central component of the cell polarity network, its expression and function in lymphocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated whether PALS1 is present in T cells and whether it contributes to T Cell-Receptor (TCR)-mediated activation.
|Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent contractile filopodia tether presumptive lens and retina to coordinate epithelial invagination.|
Chauhan, BK; Disanza, A; Choi, SY; Faber, SC; Lou, M; Beggs, HE; Scita, G; Zheng, Y; Lang, RA
Development (Cambridge, England) 136 3657-67 2009
The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model with which to study the mechanisms required for epithelial invagination. In the mouse, the lens forms from the head surface ectoderm. A domain of ectoderm first thickens to form the lens placode and then invaginates to form the lens pit. The epithelium of the lens placode remains in close apposition to the epithelium of the presumptive retina as these structures undergo a coordinated invagination. Here, we show that F-actin-rich basal filopodia that link adjacent presumptive lens and retinal epithelia function as physical tethers that coordinate invagination. The filopodia, most of which originate in the presumptive lens, form at E9.5 when presumptive lens and retinal epithelia first come into close contact, and have retracted by E11.5 when invagination is complete. At E10.5--the lens pit stage--there is approximately one filopodium per epithelial cell. Formation of filopodia is dependent on the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 and the Cdc42 effector IRSp53 (Baiap2). Loss of filopodia results in reduced lens pit invagination. Pharmacological manipulation of the actin-myosin contraction pathway showed that the filopodia can respond rapidly in length to change inter-epithelial distance. These data suggest that the lens-retina inter-epithelial filopodia are a fine-tuning mechanism to assist in lens pit invagination by transmitting the forces between presumptive lens and retina. Although invagination of the archenteron in sea urchins and dorsal closure in Drosophila are known to be partly dependent on filopodia, this mechanism of morphogenesis has not previously been identified in vertebrates.
|MPP5 recruits MPP4 to the CRB1 complex in photoreceptors.|
Kantardzhieva, Albena, et al.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 46: 2192-201 (2005) 2005
PURPOSE: Mutations in the human Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene are a frequent cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and various forms of retinitis pigmentosa. CRB1 is thought to organize an intracellular protein scaffold in the retina that is involved in photoreceptor polarity. This study was focused on the identification, subcellular localization, and binding characteristics of a novel member of the protein scaffold connected to CRB1. METHODS: To dissect the protein scaffold connected to CRB1, the yeast two-hybrid approach was used to screen for interacting proteins. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down analysis and immunoprecipitation were used to verify protein-protein interactions. The subcellular localization of the proteins was visualized by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy on human retinas and immunoelectron microscopy on mouse retinas. RESULTS: A novel member of the scaffold connected to CRB1, called membrane palmitoylated protein (MPP) subfamily member 4 (MPP4), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein, was identified. MPP4 was found to exist in a complex with CRB1 through direct interaction with the MPP subfamily member MPP5 (PALS1). 3D homology modeling provided evidence for a mechanism that regulates the recruitment of both homo- and heterodimers of MPP4 and -5 proteins to the complex. Localization studies in the retina showed that CRB1, MPP5, and MPP4 colocalize at the outer limiting membrane (OLM). CONCLUSIONS: These data imply that MPP4 and -5 have a role in photoreceptor polarity and, by association with CRB1, pinpoint the cognate genes as functional candidate genes for inherited retinopathies.
|PALS1 specifies the localization of ezrin to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells.|
Cao, Xinwang, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 280: 13584-92 (2005) 2005
The ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins provide a regulated linkage between membrane proteins and the cortical cytoskeleton and also participate in signal transduction pathways. Ezrin is localized to the apical membrane of parietal cells and couples the protein kinase A activation cascade to regulated HCl secretion in gastric parietal cells. Here, we show that the integrity of ezrin is essential for parietal cell activation and provide the first evidence that ezrin interacts with PALS1, an evolutionarily conserved PDZ and SH3 domain-containing protein. Our biochemical study verifies that ezrin binds to PALS1 via its N terminus and is co-localized with PALS1 to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. Furthermore, our study shows that PALS1 is essential for the apical localization of ezrin, as either suppression of PALS1 protein accumulation or deletion of the PALS1-binding domain of ezrin eliminated the apical localization of ezrin. Finally, our study demonstrates the essential role of ezrin-PALS1 interaction in the apical membrane remodeling associated with parietal cell secretion. Taken together, these results define a novel molecular mechanism linking ezrin to the conserved apical polarity complexes and their roles in polarized epithelial secretion of gastric parietal cells.
|Loss of PALS1 expression leads to tight junction and polarity defects.|
Straight, Samuel W, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 15: 1981-90 (2004) 2004
Prior work in our laboratory established a connection between the PALS1/PATJ/CRB3 and Par6/Par3/aPKC protein complexes at the tight junction of mammalian epithelial cells. Utilizing a stable small interfering RNA expression system, we have markedly reduced expression of the tight junction-associated protein PALS1 in MDCKII cells. The loss of PALS1 resulted in a corresponding loss of expression of PATJ, a known binding partner of PALS1, but had no effect on the expression of CRB3. However, the absence of PALS1 and PATJ expression did result in the decreased association of CRB3 with members of the Par6/Par3/aPKC protein complex. The consequences of the loss of PALS1 and PATJ were exhibited by a delay in the polarization of MDCKII monolayers after calcium switch, a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance, and by the inability of these cells to form lumenal cysts when grown in a collagen gel matrix. These defects in polarity determination may be the result of the lack of recruitment of aPKC to the tight junction in PALS1-deficient cells, as observed by confocal microscopy, and subsequent alterations in downstream signaling events.
|Structural basis for L27 domain-mediated assembly of signaling and cell polarity complexes.|
Li, Yuanhe, et al.
EMBO J., 23: 2723-33 (2004) 2004
L27 is a protein-binding domain that can assemble essential proteins for signaling and cell polarity into complexes by interacting in a heterodimeric manner. One of these protein complexes is the PATJ/PALS1/Crumbs tripartite complex, which is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity. To reveal the structural basis underlining the obligate heterodimerization, we have determined the crystal structure of the PALS1-L27N/PATJ-L27 heterodimer complex. Each L27 domain is composed of three helices. The two L27 domains heterodimerize by building a compact structure consisting of a four-helix bundle formed by the first two helices of each L27 domain and one coiled-coil formed by the third helix of each domain. The large hydrophobic packing interactions contributed by all the helices of both L27 domains predominantly drive the heterodimer formation, which is likely to be a general feature of L27 domains. Combined with mutational studies, we can begin to understand the structural basis for the specificity of L27 binding pairs. Our results provide unique insights into L27 domain heterodimer complex, which is critical for cell polarization.
|Direct interaction of two polarity complexes implicated in epithelial tight junction assembly.|
Hurd, Toby W, et al.
Nat. Cell Biol., 5: 137-42 (2003) 2003
|The Maguk protein, Pals1, functions as an adapter, linking mammalian homologues of Crumbs and Discs Lost.|
Roh, Michael H, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 157: 161-72 (2002) 2002
Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (Maguk) proteins are scaffold proteins that contain PSD-95-Discs Large-zona occludens-1 (PDZ), Src homology 3, and guanylate kinase domains. A subset of Maguk proteins, such as mLin-2 and protein associated with Lin-7 (Pals)1, also contain two L27 domains: an L27C domain that binds mLin-7 and an L27N domain of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that the L27N domain targets Pals1 to tight junctions by binding to a PDZ domain protein, Pals1-associated tight junction (PATJ) protein, via a unique Maguk recruitment domain. PATJ is a homologue of Drosophila Discs Lost, a protein that is crucial for epithelial polarity and that exists in a complex with the apical polarity determinant, Crumbs. PATJ and a human Crumbs homologue, CRB1, colocalize with Pals1 to tight junctions, and CRB1 interacts with PATJ albeit indirectly via binding the Pals1 PDZ domain. In agreement, we find that a Drosophila homologue of Pals1 participates in identical interactions with Drosophila Crumbs and Discs Lost. This Drosophila Pals1 homologue has been demonstrated recently to represent Stardust, a crucial polarity gene in Drosophila. Thus, our data identifies a new multiprotein complex that appears to be evolutionarily conserved and likely plays an important role in protein targeting and cell polarity.