Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||WB, IP||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 15629||15629|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 15651||15651|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 16206||16206|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 17798||17798|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 19078||19078|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 22726||22726|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 25163||25163|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 27337||27337|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 28136||28136|
|Anti-Phosphotyrosine - 31999||31999|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Role of plasma membrane caveolae/lipid rafts in VEGF-induced redox signaling in human leukemia cells.|
Caliceti, C; Zambonin, L; Rizzo, B; Fiorentini, D; Vieceli Dalla Sega, F; Hrelia, S; Prata, C
BioMed research international 2014 857504 2014
Caveolae/lipid rafts are membrane-rich cholesterol domains endowed with several functions in signal transduction and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been reported to be implicated in regulating multiple cancer-associated processes, ranging from tumor growth to multidrug resistance and angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and Cav-1 are frequently colocalized, suggesting an important role played by this interaction on cancer cell survival and proliferation. Thus, our attention was directed to a leukemia cell line (B1647) that constitutively produces VEGF and expresses the tyrosine-kinase receptor VEGFR-2. We investigated the presence of VEGFR-2 in caveolae/lipid rafts, focusing on the correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glucose transport modulation induced by VEGF, peculiar features of tumor proliferation. In order to better understand the involvement of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in the redox signal transduction, we evaluated the effect of different compounds able to inhibit VEGF interaction with its receptor by different mechanisms, corroborating the obtained results by immunoprecipitation and fluorescence techniques. Results here reported showed that, in B1647 leukemia cells, VEGFR-2 is present in caveolae through association with Cav-1, demonstrating that caveolae/lipid rafts act as platforms for negative modulation of VEGF redox signal transduction cascades leading to glucose uptake and cell proliferation, suggesting therefore novel potential targets.
|The role of PTEN in chronic growth hormone-induced hepatic insulin resistance.|
Gao, Y; Su, P; Wang, C; Zhu, K; Chen, X; Liu, S; He, J
PloS one 8 e68105 2013
Chronic growth hormone (GH) therapy has been shown to cause insulin resistance, but the mechanism remains unknown. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, is a major negative regulator of insulin signaling. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic GH on insulin signaling in the context of PTEN function. Balb/c healthy mice were given recombinant human or bovine GH intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. We found that phosphorylation of Akt was significantly decreased in chronic GH group and the expression of PTEN was significantly increased. We further examined this effect in the streptozotocin-induced Type I diabetic mouse model, in which endogenous insulin secretion was disrupted. Insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling was impaired. However, different from the observation in healthy mice, the expression of PTEN did not increase. Similarly, PTEN expression did not significantly increase in chronic GH-treated mice with hypoinsulinemia induced by prolonged fasting. We conducted in-vitro experiments in HepG2 cells to validate our in-vivo findings. Long-term exposure to GH caused similar resistance of insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling in HepG2 cells; and over-expression of PTEN enhanced the impairment of insulin signaling. On the other hand, disabling the PTEN gene by transfecting the mutant PTEN construct C124S or siPTEN, disrupted the chronic GH induced insulin resistance. Our data demonstrate that PTEN plays an important role in chronic-GH-induced insulin resistance. These findings may have implication in other pathological insulin resistance.
|Effect of plasma membrane cholesterol depletion on glucose transport regulation in leukemia cells.|
Caliceti, C; Zambonin, L; Prata, C; Vieceli Dalla Sega, F; Hakim, G; Hrelia, S; Fiorentini, D
PloS one 7 e41246 2012
GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To this purpose, the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) on both GLUT1 activity and trafficking was compared to that of the cytokine Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results show that, like SCF, MBCD led to an increased glucose transport rate and caused a subcellular redistribution of GLUT1, recruiting intracellular transporter molecules to the plasma membrane. Due to the role of caveolae/lipid rafts in GLUT1 stimulation in response to many stimuli, we have also investigated the GLUT1 distribution along the fractions obtained after non ionic detergent treatment and density gradient centrifugation, which was only slightly changed upon MBCD treatment. The data suggest that MBCD exerts its action via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism that ultimately results in augmented GLUT1 translocation. Moreover, cholesterol depletion triggers GLUT1 translocation without the involvement of c-kit signalling pathway, in fact MBCD effect does not involve Akt and PLCγ phosphorylation. These data, together with the observation that the combined MBCD/SCF cell treatment caused an additive effect on glucose uptake, suggest that the action of SCF and MBCD may proceed through two distinct mechanisms, the former following a signalling pathway, and the latter possibly involving a novel cholesterol dependent mechanism.
|IGF-1 Receptors in Xenopus laevis Ovarian Follicle Cells Support the Oocyte Maturation Response.|
Sadler SE, Angleson JK, Dsouza M
Biology of reproduction 82 591-8 2010
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-stimulated amphibian oocyte maturation has been studied extensively by a number of laboratory groups, but in previous studies possible effects of IGF-1 on ovarian follicle cells had not been tested directly. In the study reported here, biochemical and immunofluorescent techniques were used to test Xenopus ovarian follicle cells for the presence of hormone-sensitive IGF-1 receptor. Anti-xIGF-1 receptor beta-subunit antibodies detected a 90- and 98-kDa protein doublet in manually dissected oocyte cortices (plasma membrane-vitelline envelope complexes) by protein immunoblotting both before and after removal of follicle cells from oocytes by sandpaper rolling. The 90-kDa IGF-1 receptor beta-subunit was also detected in follicle cell pellets. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor beta-subunits was increased by treatment of cortices with 10 nM IGF-1 both in the presence and absence of associated follicle cells, was reduced by removal of follicle cells, and was detected in follicle cell pellets. Treatment of follicle cell pellets with nanomolar concentrations of IGF-1 stimulated receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent fashion that correlated with dose-dependent stimulation of oocyte maturation. IGF-1 receptor was also detected in cultured follicle cells by immunofluorescence. Removal of follicle cells significantly reduced the IGF-1-stimulated oocyte maturation response. These results offer the first direct evidence for hormone-responsive IGF-1 receptors in Xenopus laevis ovarian follicle cells and demonstrate that follicle cells somehow support IGF-1-stimulated oocyte maturation.
|Physical and functional interaction between polyoma virus middle T antigen and insulin and IGF-I receptors is required for oncogene activation and tumour initiation.|
Novosyadlyy, R; Vijayakumar, A; Lann, D; Fierz, Y; Kurshan, N; LeRoith, D
Oncogene 28 3477-86 2009
Polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyVmT) is a powerful viral oncogene; however, the mechanisms of PyVmT activation are poorly understood. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) and the insulin receptor (IR) are known to be implicated in the development of many cancers. Furthermore, PyVmT-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma Met-1 cells are highly responsive to IGF-I and insulin. Herein, we demonstrate that PyVmT physically interacts with IGF-IR and IR in Met-1 cells. Insulin and IGF-I increase association of the IR and IGF-IR with PyVmT, enhance tyrosine phosphorylation of PyVmT and augment the recruitment of Src and PLCgamma(1) to PyVmT. This is accompanied by robust and sustained phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, which are implicated in both PyVmT and IGF-IR/IR signalling. Both ligands significantly increase proliferation, survival, migration and invasion of Met-1 cells. Furthermore, orthotopic inoculation of Met-1 cells with shRNAmir-mediated knockdown of IR or IGF-IR fails to initiate tumour growth in recipient mice. In conclusion, our data indicate that the physical and functional interaction between PyVmT and cellular receptor tyrosine kinases, including IR and IGF-IR, is critical for PyVmT activation and tumour initiation. These results also provide a novel mechanism for oncogene activation in the host cell.Full Text Article
|Chronic oxidative stress causes amplification and overexpression of ptprz1 protein tyrosine phosphatase to activate beta-catenin pathway.|
Yu-Ting Liu, Donghao Shang, Shinya Akatsuka, Hiroki Ohara, Khokon Kumar Dutta, Katsura Mizushima, Yuji Naito, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Masashi Izumiya, Kouichiro Abe, Hitoshi Nakagama, Noriko Noguchi, Shinya Toyokuni
The American journal of pathology 171 1978-88 2007
Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta or receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16 approximately 552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the beta-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated beta-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear beta-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating beta-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification.Full Text Article
|Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling reduces hypercalcaemia induced by human lung squamous-cell carcinoma in athymic mice.|
Lorch, G; Gilmore, JL; Koltz, PF; Gonterman, RM; Laughner, R; Lewis, DA; Konger, RL; Nadella, KS; Toribio, RE; Rosol, TJ; Foley, J
British journal of cancer 97 183-93 2007
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression and humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy (HHM), using two different human squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) xenograft models. A randomised controlled study in which nude mice with RWGT2 and HARA xenografts received either placebo or gefitinib 200 mg kg(-1) for 3 days after developing HHM. Effectiveness of therapy was evaluated by measuring plasma calcium and PTHrP, urine cyclic AMP/creatinine ratios, and tumour volumes. The study end point was at 78 h. The lung SCC lines, RWGT2 and HARA, expressed high levels of PTHrP mRNA as well as abundant EGFR protein, but very little erbB2 or erbB3. Both lines expressed high transcript levels for the EGFR ligand, amphiregulin (AREG), as well as, substantially lower levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) mRNA. Parathyroid hormone-related protein gene expression in both lines was reduced 40-80% after treatment with 1 muM of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 and precipitating antibodies to AREG. Gefitinib treatment of hypercalcaemic mice with RWGT2 and HARA xenografts resulted in a significant reduction of plasma total calcium concentrations by 78 h. Autocrine AREG stimulated the EGFR and increased PTHrP gene expression in the RWGT2 and HARA lung SCC lines. Inhibition of the EGFR pathway in two human SCC models of HHM by an anilinoquinazoline demonstrated that the EGFR tyrosine kinase is a potential target for antihypercalcaemic therapy.
|Wnt5a is required for proper mammary gland development and TGF-beta-mediated inhibition of ductal growth.|
Roarty, K; Serra, R
Development (Cambridge, England) 134 3929-39 2007
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays an essential role in growth and patterning of the mammary gland, and alterations in its signaling have been shown to illicit biphasic effects on tumor progression and metastasis. We demonstrate in mice that TGF-beta (Tgfbeta) regulates the expression of a non-canonical signaling member of the wingless-related protein family, Wnt5a. Loss of Wnt5a expression has been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients; however, data are lacking with regard to a functional role for Wnt5a in mammary gland development. We show that Wnt5a is capable of inhibiting ductal extension and lateral branching in the mammary gland. Furthermore, Wnt5a(-/-) mammary tissue exhibits an accelerated developmental capacity compared with wild-type tissue, marked by larger terminal end buds, rapid ductal elongation, increased lateral branching and increased proliferation. Additionally, dominant-negative interference of TGF-beta signaling impacts not only the expression of Wnt5a, but also the phosphorylation of discoidin domain receptor 1 (Ddr1), a receptor for collagen and downstream target of Wnt5a implicated in cell adhesion/migration. Lastly, we show that Wnt5a is required for TGF-beta-mediated inhibition of ductal extension in vivo and branching in culture. This study is the first to show a requirement for Wnt5a in normal mammary development and its functional connection to TGF-beta.
|Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Src, and Akt modulate acute ventilation-induced vascular permeability increases in mouse lungs.|
Miyahara, T; Hamanaka, K; Weber, DS; Drake, DA; Anghelescu, M; Parker, JC
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 293 L11-21 2007
To determine the role of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) pathways in the acute vascular permeability increase associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, we ventilated isolated perfused lungs and intact C57BL/6 mice with low and high peak inflation pressures (PIP). In isolated lungs, filtration coefficients (K(f)) increased significantly after ventilation at 30 cmH(2)O (high PIP) for successive periods of 15, 30 (4.1-fold), and 50 (5.4-fold) min. Pretreatment with 50 microM of the PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002, or 20 microM PP2, a Src kinase inhibitor, significantly attenuated the increase in K(f), whereas 10 microM Akt inhibitor IV significantly augmented the increased K(f). There were no significant differences in K(f) or lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratios between groups ventilated with 9 cmH(2)O PIP (low PIP), with or without inhibitor treatment. Total lung beta-catenin was unchanged in any low PIP isolated lung group, but Akt inhibition during high PIP ventilation significantly decreased total beta-catenin by 86%. Ventilation of intact mice with 55 cmH(2)O PIP for up to 60 min also increased lung vascular permeability, indicated by increases in lung lavage albumin concentration and lung W/D ratios. In these lungs, tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin and serine/threonine phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), and ERK1/2 increased significantly with peak effects at 60 min. Thus mechanical stress activation of PI3K and Src may increase lung vascular permeability through tyrosine phosphorylation, but simultaneous activation of the PI3K-Akt-GSK3beta pathway tends to limit this permeability response, possibly by preserving cellular beta-catenin.
|In vivo insulin signaling through PI3-kinase is impaired in skeletal muscle of adult rat offspring exposed to ethanol in utero.|
Chen, L; Yao, XH; Nyomba, BL
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 99 528-34 2005
It is now known that prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in rat offspring, but the underlying mechanism(s) is not known. To test the hypothesis that in vivo insulin signaling through phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase is reduced in skeletal muscle of adult rat offspring exposed to EtOH in utero, we gave insulin intravenously to these rats and probed steps in the PI3-kinase insulin signaling pathway. After insulin treatment, EtOH-exposed rats had decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit and of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), as well as reduced IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase in the gastrocnemius muscle compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in basal or insulin-stimulated Akt activity between EtOH-exposed rats and controls. Insulin-stimulated PKC isoform zeta phosphorylation and membrane association were reduced in EtOH-exposed rats compared with controls. Muscle insulin binding and peptide contents of insulin receptor, IRS-1, p85 subunit of PI3-kinase, Akt/PKB, and atypical PKC isoform zeta were not different between EtOH-exposed rats and controls. Thus insulin resistance in rat offspring exposed to EtOH in utero may be explained, at least in part, by impaired insulin signaling through the PI3-kinase pathway in skeletal muscle.