Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||WB, IF, FC, IHC, IP, ICC, ELISA||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||30 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Merlin Isoforms 1 and 2 Both Act as Tumour Suppressors and Are Required for Optimal Sperm Maturation.|
Zoch, A; Mayerl, S; Schulz, A; Greither, T; Frappart, L; Rübsam, J; Heuer, H; Giovannini, M; Morrison, H
PloS one 10 e0129151 2015
The tumour suppressor Merlin, encoded by the gene NF2, is frequently mutated in the autosomal dominant disorder neurofibromatosis type II, characterised primarily by the development of schwannoma and other glial cell tumours. However, NF2 is expressed in virtually all analysed human and rodent organs, and its deletion in mice causes early embryonic lethality. Additionally, NF2 encodes for two major isoforms of Merlin of unknown functionality. Specifically, the tumour suppressor potential of isoform 2 remains controversial. In this study, we used Nf2 isoform-specific knockout mouse models to analyse the function of each isoform during development and organ homeostasis. We found that both isoforms carry full tumour suppressor functionality and can completely compensate the loss of the other isoform during development and in most adult organs. Surprisingly, we discovered that spermatogenesis is strictly dependent on the presence of both isoforms. While the testis primarily expresses isoform 1, we noticed an enrichment of isoform 2 in spermatogonial stem cells. Deletion of either isoform was found to cause decreased sperm quality as observed by maturation defects and head/midpiece abnormalities. These defects led to impaired sperm functionality as assessed by decreased sperm capacitation. Thus, we describe spermatogenesis as a new Nf2-dependent process. Additionally, we provide for the first time in vivo evidence for equal tumour suppressor potentials of Merlin isoform 1 and isoform 2.
|Differential requirement for Src family tyrosine kinases in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of prostate cancer.|
Gelman, IH; Peresie, J; Eng, KH; Foster, BA
Molecular cancer research : MCR 12 1470-9 2014
Prostate cancer (CaP) recurrence after androgen ablation therapy remains a significant cause of mortality in aging men. Malignant progression and metastasis are typically driven by genetic and epigenetic changes controlled by the androgen receptor (AR). However, evidence suggests that activated nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including those of the Src family kinases (SFK), directly phosphorylate AR, thereby activating its transcriptional activity in the absence of serum androgen levels. To ascertain whether CaP progression and metastasis require SFK members, an autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma (AD) of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model was crossed into Src-, Lyn- or Fyn-null backgrounds. Primary-site CaP formation was dependent on Src, to a lesser extent, Lyn, but not Fyn. Only Src(-) (/) (-);TRAMP prostate tumors were marked by reactive stroma. SFK deficiency did not affect progression to neuroendocrine (NE) disease, although there were fewer new cancer cases initiating after 34 weeks in the SFK(-/-);TRAMP mice compared with TRAMP controls. Of note, 15% to 21% of older (greater than 33 weeks) Lyn- or Fyn-null TRAMP mice lacking primary-site tumors suffered from aggressive metastatic AD growths, compared with 3% of TRAMP mice. Taken with the data that TRAMP mice lacking Src or Lyn exhibited fewer macroscopic metastases compared with Fyn(-) (/) (-);TRAMP and TRAMP controls, this suggests that SFK can either promote or suppress specific parameters of metastatic growth, possibly depending on cross-talk with primary tumors. These data identify critical, yet potentially opposing roles played by various SFKs in the initiation and metastatic potential of CaP using the TRAMP model.Genetically defined mouse models indicate a critical role for Src tyrosine kinase in CaP initiation and metastatic progression.
|Evidence that TMEM67 causes polycystic kidney disease through activation of JNK/ERK-dependent pathways.|
Du, E; Li, H; Jin, S; Hu, X; Qiu, M; Han, R
Cell biology international 37 694-702 2013
TMEM67 mutations are associated with severe autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) in both humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PKD caused by TMEM67 mutations remain to be determined. We have investigated the possible signalling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of PKD. Overexpression of TMEM67 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells triggered the activation of overall tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal KINASE (JNK). Activation was suppressed by pharmacological inhibitors of ERK or JNK. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) or p70s kinase (S6K) did not occur, although elevated phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), a target of S6K, was seen. In animal studies, activation of a variety of signalling molecules was linked to ERK, JNK and 4E-BP1. Significant induction of phosphorylation of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, ERK and 4E-BP1, at different postnatal ages was detected in mutant kidneys of B6C3Fe a/a-bpck mice, a cystic renal disease mouse model caused by TMEM67 loss of function mutation. Based on these in vitro and in vivo observations, we propose that TMEM67 mutations cause PKD through ERK- and JNK-dependent signalling pathways, which may provide novel insight into the therapy of polycystic kidney diseases.
|Recruitment of Grb2 and SHIP1 by the ITT-like motif of TIGIT suppresses granule polarization and cytotoxicity of NK cells.|
Liu, S; Zhang, H; Li, M; Hu, D; Li, C; Ge, B; Jin, B; Fan, Z
Cell death and differentiation 20 456-64 2013
Activating and inhibitory receptors control natural killer (NK) cell activity. T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif) domain (TIGIT) was recently identified as a new inhibitory receptor on T and NK cells that suppressed their effector functions. TIGIT harbors the immunoreceptor tail tyrosine (ITT)-like and ITIM motifs in its cytoplasmic tail. However, how its ITT-like motif functions in TIGIT-mediated negative signaling is still unclear. Here, we show that TIGIT/PVR (poliovirus receptor) engagement disrupts granule polarization leading to loss of killing activity of NK cells. The ITT-like motif of TIGIT has a major role in its negative signaling. After TIGIT/PVR ligation, the ITT-like motif is phosphorylated at Tyr225 and binds to cytosolic adapter Grb2, which can recruit SHIP1 to prematurely terminate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and MAPK signaling, leading to downregulation of NK cell function. In support of this, Tyr225 or Asn227 mutation leads to restoration of TIGIT/PVR-mediated cytotoxicity, and SHIP1 silencing can dramatically abolish TIGIT/PVR-mediated killing inhibition.
|The HPV16 E6 oncoprotein causes prolonged receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling and enhances internalization of phosphorylated receptor species.|
Spangle, JM; Munger, K
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003237 2013
The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins are consistently expressed in HPV-associated lesions and cancers. HPV16 E6 sustains the activity of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling cascades under conditions of growth factor deprivation. Here we report that HPV16 E6 activated mTORC1 by enhanced signaling through receptor protein tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptors. This is evidenced by sustained signaling through these receptors for several hours after growth factor withdrawal. HPV16 E6 increased the internalization of activated receptor species, and the signaling adaptor protein GRB2 was shown to be critical for HPV16 E6 mediated enhanced EGFR internalization and mTORC1 activation. As a consequence of receptor protein kinase mediated mTORC1 activation, HPV16 E6 expression increased cellular migration of primary human epithelial cells. This study identifies a previously unappreciated mechanism by which HPV E6 proteins perturb host-signaling pathways presumably to sustain protein synthesis during the viral life cycle that may also contribute to cellular transforming activities of high-risk HPV E6 proteins.
|Distinct roles of muscle and motoneuron LRP4 in neuromuscular junction formation.|
Wu, H; Lu, Y; Shen, C; Patel, N; Gan, L; Xiong, WC; Mei, L
Neuron 75 94-107 2012
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation requires precise interaction between motoneurons and muscle fibers. LRP4 is a receptor of agrin that is thought to act in cis to stimulate MuSK in muscle fibers for postsynaptic differentiation. Here we dissected the roles of LRP4 in muscle fibers and motoneurons in NMJ formation by cell-specific mutation. Studies of muscle-specific mutants suggest that LRP4 is involved in deciding where to form AChR clusters in muscle fibers, postsynaptic differentiation, and axon terminal development. LRP4 in HEK293 cells increased synapsin or SV2 puncta in contacting axons of cocultured neurons, suggesting a synaptogenic function. Analysis of LRP4 muscle and motoneuron double mutants and mechanistic studies suggest that NMJ formation may also be regulated by LRP4 in motoneurons, which could serve as agrin's receptor in trans to induce AChR clusters. These observations uncovered distinct roles of LRP4 in motoneurons and muscles in NMJ development.
|Protein expression signatures for inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signaling.|
Myers, MV; Manning, HC; Coffey, RJ; Liebler, DC
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 11 M111.015222 2012
Analysis of cellular signaling networks typically involves targeted measurements of phosphorylated protein intermediates. However, phosphoproteomic analyses usually require affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides and can be complicated by artifactual changes in phosphorylation caused by uncontrolled preanalytical variables, particularly in the analysis of tissue specimens. We asked whether changes in protein expression, which are more stable and easily analyzed, could reflect network stimulation and inhibition. We employed this approach to analyze stimulation and inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by EGF and selective EGFR inhibitors. Shotgun analysis of proteomes from proliferating A431 cells, EGF-stimulated cells, and cells co-treated with the EGFR inhibitors cetuximab or gefitinib identified groups of differentially expressed proteins. Comparisons of these protein groups identified 13 proteins whose EGF-induced expression changes were reversed by both EGFR inhibitors. Targeted multiple reaction monitoring analysis verified differential expression of 12 of these proteins, which comprise a candidate EGFR inhibition signature. We then tested these 12 proteins by multiple reaction monitoring analysis in three other models: 1) a comparison of DiFi (EGFR inhibitor-sensitive) and HCT116 (EGFR-insensitive) cell lines, 2) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse xenograft DiFi and HCT116 tumors, and 3) in tissue biopsies from a patient with the gastric hyperproliferative disorder Ménétrier's disease who was treated with cetuximab. Of the proteins in the candidate signature, a core group, including c-Jun, Jagged-1, and Claudin 4, were decreased by EGFR inhibitors in all three models. Although the goal of these studies was not to validate a clinically useful EGFR inhibition signature, the results confirm the hypothesis that clinically used EGFR inhibitors generate characteristic protein expression changes. This work further outlines a prototypical approach to derive and test protein expression signatures for drug action on signaling networks.
|The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus G protein-coupled receptor contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif that activates Shp2.|
Philpott, N; Bakken, T; Pennell, C; Chen, L; Wu, J; Cannon, M
Journal of virology 85 1140-4 2011
The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) is a constitutively active, highly angiogenic homologue of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptors that signals in part via the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. We show that vGPCR contains a bona fide immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) that binds and constitutively activates Shp2.
|Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3.|
Nelson, EA; Walker, SR; Kepich, A; Gashin, LB; Hideshima, T; Ikeda, H; Chauhan, D; Anderson, KC; Frank, DA
Blood 112 5095-102 2008
Constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3 contributes to the pathogenesis of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, targeted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds known to be safe in humans. We found the drug nifuroxazide to be an effective inhibitor of STAT3 function. Nifuroxazide inhibits the constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in MM cells by reducing Jak kinase autophosphorylation, and leads to down-regulation of the STAT3 target gene Mcl-1. Nifuroxazide causes a decrease in viability of primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines containing STAT3 activation, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although bone marrow stromal cells provide survival signals to myeloma cells, nifuroxazide can overcome this survival advantage. Reflecting the interaction of STAT3 with other cellular pathways, nifuroxazide shows enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with either the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide or the MEK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, using a mechanistic-based screen, we identified the clinically relevant drug nifuroxazide as a potent inhibitor of STAT signaling that shows cytotoxicity against myeloma cells that depend on STAT3 for survival.Full Text Article
|4G10® Platinum, Anti-Phosphotyrosine (mouse monoclonal cocktail IgG2b)|