Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB, ICC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Prtotein G purified antibody in 0.1M Tris-Glycine, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% Sodium Azide, pH 7.4|
|Application||Detect RAD21 with Anti-RAD21 Antibody (Mouse Monoclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in IP, WB, ICC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-RAD21 - 30391||30391|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303||2476729|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303||2483893|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303 (mouse monoclonal IgG)||2957954|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303 (mouse monoclonal IgG)||2880726|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303 (mouse monoclonal IgG)||2918902|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303 (mouse monoclonal IgG) - 2189942||2189942|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303 (mouse monoclonal IgG) - 2352367||2352367|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303 - 2031426||2031426|
|Anti-Rad21, clone 53A303 - 2535820||2535820|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Architectural proteins CTCF and cohesin have distinct roles in modulating the higher order structure and expression of the CFTR locus.|
Gosalia, N; Neems, D; Kerschner, JL; Kosak, ST; Harris, A
Nucleic acids research 42 9612-22 2014
Higher order chromatin structures across the genome are maintained in part by the architectural proteins CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) and the cohesin complex, which co-localize at many sites across the genome. Here, we examine the role of these proteins in mediating chromatin structure at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR encompasses nearly 200 kb flanked by CTCF-binding enhancer-blocking insulator elements and is regulated by cell-type-specific intronic enhancers, which loop to the promoter in the active locus. SiRNA-mediated depletion of CTCF or the cohesin component, RAD21, showed that these two factors have distinct roles in regulating the higher order organization of CFTR. CTCF mediates the interactions between CTCF/cohesin binding sites, some of which have enhancer-blocking insulator activity. Cohesin shares this tethering role, but in addition stabilizes interactions between the promoter and cis-acting intronic elements including enhancers, which are also dependent on the forkhead box A1/A2 (FOXA1/A2) transcription factors (TFs). Disruption of the three-dimensional structure of the CFTR gene by depletion of CTCF or RAD21 increases gene expression, which is accompanied by alterations in histone modifications and TF occupancy across the locus, and causes internalization of the gene from the nuclear periphery.
|Prophase pathway-dependent removal of cohesin from human chromosomes requires opening of the Smc3-Scc1 gate.|
Buheitel, J; Stemmann, O
The EMBO journal 32 666-76 2013
Faithful transmission of chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division requires sister chromatids to be paired from their generation in S phase until their separation in M phase. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin complex, whose Smc1, Smc3 and Scc1 subunits form a tripartite ring that entraps both DNA double strands. Whereas centromeric cohesin is removed in late metaphase by Scc1 cleavage, metazoan cohesin at chromosome arms is displaced already in prophase by proteolysis-independent signalling. Which of the three gates is triggered by the prophase pathway to open has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that displacement of human cohesin from early mitotic chromosomes requires dissociation of Smc3 from Scc1 but no opening of the other two gates. In contrast, loading of human cohesin onto chromatin in telophase occurs through the Smc1-Smc3 hinge. We propose that the use of differently regulated gates for loading and release facilitates unidirectionality of DNA's entry into and exit from the cohesin ring.
|Scc1 sumoylation by Mms21 promotes sister chromatid recombination through counteracting Wapl.|
Wu, N; Kong, X; Ji, Z; Zeng, W; Potts, PR; Yokomori, K; Yu, H
Genes & development 26 1473-85 2012
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) fuel cancer-driving chromosome translocations. Two related structural maintenance of chromosomes (Smc) complexes, cohesin and Smc5/6, promote DSB repair through sister chromatid homologous recombination (SCR). Here we show that the Smc5/6 subunit Mms21 sumoylates multiple lysines of the cohesin subunit Scc1. Mms21 promotes cohesin-dependent small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) accumulation at laser-induced DNA damage sites in S/G2 human cells. Cells expressing the nonsumoylatable Scc1 mutant (15KR) maintain sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis but are defective in SCR and sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR). Scc1 15KR is recruited to DNA damage sites. Depletion of Wapl, a negative cohesin regulator, rescues SCR defects of Mms21-deficient or Scc1 15KR-expressing cells. Expression of the acetylation-mimicking Smc3 mutant does not bypass the requirement for Mms21 in SCR. We propose that Scc1 sumoylation by Mms21 promotes SCR by antagonizing Wapl at a step after cohesin loading at DSBs and in a way not solely dependent on Smc3 acetylation.
|Cohesin regulates MHC class II genes through interactions with MHC class II insulators.|
Majumder, P; Boss, JM
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 187 4236-44 2011
Cohesin is a multiprotein, ringed complex that is most well-known for its role in stabilizing the association of sister chromatids between S phase and M. More recently, cohesin was found to be associated with transcriptional insulators, elements that are associated with the organization of chromatin into regulatory domains. The human MHC class II (MHC-II) locus contains 10 intergenic elements, termed MHC-II insulators, which bind the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor. MHC-II insulators interact with each other, forming a base architecture of discrete loops and potential regulatory domains. When MHC-II genes are expressed, their proximal promoter regulatory regions reorganize to the foci established by the interacting MHC-II insulators. MHC-II insulators also bind cohesin, but the functional role of cohesin in regulating this system is not known. In this article, we show that the binding of cohesin to MHC-II insulators occurred irrespective of MHC-II expression but was required for optimal expression of the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes. In a DNA-dependent manner, cohesin subunits interacted with CCCTC-binding factor and the MHC-II-specific transcription factors regulatory factor X and CIITA. Intriguingly, cohesin subunits were important for DNA looping interactions between the HLA-DRA promoter region and a 5' MHC-II insulator but were not required for interactions between the MHC-II insulators themselves. This latter observation introduces cohesin as a regulator of MHC-II expression by initiating or stabilizing MHC-II promoter regulatory element interactions with the MHC-II insulator elements, events that are required for maximal MHC-II transcription.
|CTCF controls expression and chromatin architecture of the human major histocompatibility complex class II locus.|
Majumder, P; Boss, JM
Molecular and cellular biology 30 4211-23 2010
The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) locus includes a dense cluster of genes that function to initiate immune responses. Expression of insulator CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) was found to be required for expression of all MHC class II genes associated with antigen presentation. Ten CTCF sites that divide the MHC-II locus into apparent evolutionary domains were identified. To define the role of CTCF in mediating regulation of the MHC II genes, chromatin conformation capture assays, which provide an architectural assessment of a locus, were conducted across the MHC-II region. Depending on whether MHC-II genes and the class II transactivator (CIITA) were being expressed, two CTCF-dependent chromatin architectural states, each with multiple configurations and interactions, were observed. These states included the ability to express MHC-II gene promoter regions to interact with nearby CTCF sites and CTCF sites to interact with each other. Thus, CTCF organizes the MHC-II locus into a novel basal architecture of interacting foci and loop structures that rearranges in the presence of CIITA. Disruption of the rearranged states eradicated expression, suggesting that the formation of these structures is key to coregulation of MHC-II genes and the locus.