Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IHC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||250 µg|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8||2476975|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8||3074333|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2116619||2116619|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2382127||2382127|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2397127||2397127|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2452510||2452510|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 15254||15254|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 16999||16999|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 18070||18070|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 18423||18423|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility.|
Yang, Y; Park, SY; Nguyen, TT; Yu, YH; Nguyen, TV; Sun, EG; Udeni, J; Jeong, MH; Pereira, I; Moon, C; Ha, HH; Kim, KK; Hur, JS; Kim, H
PloS one 10 e0137889 2015
Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action.
|Spatial mapping of juxtacrine axo-glial interactions identifies novel molecules in peripheral myelination.|
Poitelon, Y; Bogni, S; Matafora, V; Della-Flora Nunes, G; Hurley, E; Ghidinelli, M; Katzenellenbogen, BS; Taveggia, C; Silvestri, N; Bachi, A; Sannino, A; Wrabetz, L; Feltri, ML
Nature communications 6 8303 2015
Cell-cell interactions promote juxtacrine signals in specific subcellular domains, which are difficult to capture in the complexity of the nervous system. For example, contact between axons and Schwann cells triggers signals required for radial sorting and myelination. Failure in this interaction causes dysmyelination and axonal degeneration. Despite its importance, few molecules at the axo-glial surface are known. To identify novel molecules in axo-glial interactions, we modified the 'pseudopodia' sub-fractionation system and isolated the projections that glia extend when they receive juxtacrine signals from axons. By proteomics we identified the signalling networks present at the glial-leading edge, and novel proteins, including members of the Prohibitin family. Glial-specific deletion of Prohibitin-2 in mice impairs axo-glial interactions and myelination. We thus validate a novel method to model morphogenesis and juxtacrine signalling, provide insights into the molecular organization of the axo-glial contact, and identify a novel class of molecules in myelination.
|The proto-oncogene c-Src and its downstream signaling pathways are inhibited by the metastasis suppressor, NDRG1.|
Liu, W; Yue, F; Zheng, M; Merlot, A; Bae, DH; Huang, M; Lane, D; Jansson, P; Lui, GY; Richardson, V; Sahni, S; Kalinowski, D; Kovacevic, Z; Richardson, DR
Oncotarget 6 8851-74 2015
N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor that plays a key role in regulating signaling pathways involved in mediating cancer cell invasion and migration, including those derived from prostate, colon, etc. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets through which NDRG1 reduces cancer cell invasion and migration, leading to inhibition of cancer metastasis, are not fully elucidated. In this investigation, using NDRG1 over-expression models in three tumor cell-types (namely, DU145, PC3MM and HT29) and also NDRG1 silencing in DU145 and HT29 cells, we reveal that NDRG1 decreases phosphorylation of a key proto-oncogene, cellular Src (c-Src), at a well-characterized activating site (Tyr416). NDRG1-mediated down-regulation of EGFR expression and activation were responsible for the decreased phosphorylation of c-Src (Tyr416). Indeed, NDRG1 prevented recruitment of c-Src to EGFR and c-Src activation. Moreover, NDRG1 suppressed Rac1 activity by modulating phosphorylation of a c-Src downstream effector, p130Cas, and its association with CrkII, which acts as a "molecular switch" to activate Rac1. NDRG1 also affected another signaling molecule involved in modulating Rac1 signaling, c-Abl, which then inhibited CrkII phosphorylation. Silencing NDRG1 increased cell migration relative to the control and inhibition of c-Src signaling using siRNA, or a pharmacological inhibitor (SU6656), prevented this increase. Hence, the role of NDRG1 in decreasing cell migration is, in part, due to its inhibition of c-Src activation. In addition, novel pharmacological agents, which induce NDRG1 expression and are currently under development as anti-metastatic agents, markedly increase NDRG1 and decrease c-Src activation. This study leads to important insights into the mechanism involved in inhibiting metastasis by NDRG1 and how to target these pathways with novel therapeutics.
|Immunohistochemical analysis of the natural killer cell cytotoxicity pathway in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.|
Hinterseher, I; Schworer, CM; Lillvis, JH; Stahl, E; Erdman, R; Gatalica, Z; Tromp, G; Kuivaniemi, H
International journal of molecular sciences 16 11196-212 2015
Our previous analysis using genome-wide microarray expression data revealed extreme overrepresentation of immune related genes belonging the Natural Killer (NK) Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity pathway (hsa04650) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We followed up the microarray studies by immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies against nine members of the NK pathway (VAV1, VAV3, PLCG1, PLCG2, HCST, TYROBP, PTK2B, TNFA, and GZMB) and aortic tissue samples from AAA repair operations (n = 6) and control aortae (n = 8) from age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched donors from autopsies. The results confirmed the microarray results. Two different members of the NK pathway, HCST and GRZB, which act at different steps in the NK-pathway, were actively transcribed and translated into proteins in the same cells in the AAA tissue demonstrated by double staining. Furthermore, double staining with antibodies against CD68 or CD8 together with HCST, TYROBP, PTK2B or PLCG2 revealed that CD68 and CD8 positive cells expressed proteins of the NK-pathway but were not the only inflammatory cells involved in the NK-pathway in the AAA tissue. The results provide strong evidence that the NK Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity Pathway is activated in human AAA and valuable insight for future studies to dissect the pathogenesis of human AAA.
|ROCK1 deficiency enhances protective effects of antioxidants against apoptosis and cell detachment.|
Surma, M; Handy, C; Chang, J; Kapur, R; Wei, L; Shi, J
PloS one 9 e90758 2014
We have recently reported that the homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, play different roles in regulating stress-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment, and the ROCK1 deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) has remarkable anti-apoptotic, anti-detachment and pro-survival effects against doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug. This study investigated the roles of ROCK isoforms in doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which is believed to be the major mechanism underlying its cytotoxicity to normal cells, and especially to cardiomyocytes. Different antioxidants have been shown to provide a protective role reported in numerous experimental studies, but clinical trials of antioxidant therapy showed insufficient benefit against the cardiac side effect. We found that both ROCK1-/- and ROCK2-/- MEFs exhibited reduced ROS production in response to doxorubicin treatment. Interestingly, only ROCK1 deficiency, but not ROCK2 deficiency, significantly enhanced the protective effects of antioxidants against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. First, ROCK1 deficiency and N-acetylcysteine (an anti-oxidant) treatment synergistically reduced ROS levels, caspase activation and cell detachment. In addition, the reduction of ROS generation in ROCK1-/- MEFs in response to doxorubicin treatment was in part through inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, ROCK1 deficiency enhanced the inhibitory effects of diphenyleneiodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) on ROS generation and caspase 3 activation induced by doxorubicin. Finally, ROCK1 deficiency had greater protective effects than antioxidant treatment, especially on reducing actin cytoskeleton remodeling. ROCK1 deficiency not only reduced actomyosin contraction but also preserved central stress fiber stability, whereas antioxidant treatment only reduced actomyosin contraction without preserving central stress fibers. These results reveal a novel strategy to enhance the protective effect of antioxidant therapy by targeting the ROCK1 pathway to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton and boost the inhibitory effects on ROS production, apoptosis and cell detachment.
|Interactome analysis of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α1 and -β1 in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells by affinity purification-mass spectrometry.|
Moon, S; Han, D; Kim, Y; Jin, J; Ho, WK; Kim, Y
Scientific reports 4 4376 2014
The heterotrimeric enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major metabolic factor that regulates the homeostasis of cellular energy. In particular, AMPK mediates the insulin resistance that is associated with type 2 diabetes. Generally, cellular processes require tight regulation of protein kinases, which is effected through their formation of complex with other proteins and substrates. Despite their critical function in regulation and pathogenesis, there are limited data on the interaction of protein kinases. To identify proteins that interact with AMPK, we performed large-scale affinity purification (AP)-mass spectrometry (MS) of the AMPK-α1 and -β1 subunits. Through a comprehensive analysis, using a combination of immunoprecipitaion and ion trap mass spectrometry, we identified 381 unique proteins in the AMPKα/β interactomes: 325 partners of AMPK-α1 and 243 for AMPK-β1. Further, we identified 196 novel protein-protein interactions with AMPK-α1 and AMPK-β1. Notably, in our bioinformatics analysis, the novel interaction partners mediated functions that are related to the regulation of actin organization. Specifically, several such proteins were linked to pancreatic beta-cell functions, including glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell development, beta-cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication.
|Downregulation of microRNA-100 enhances the ICMT-Rac1 signaling and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.|
Zhou, HC; Fang, JH; Luo, X; Zhang, L; Yang, J; Zhang, C; Zhuang, SM
Oncotarget 5 12177-88 2014
Metastasis is responsible for rapid recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and poor survival of HCC patients. Here we showed that miR-100 downregulation in HCC tissues was significantly associated with venous invasion, advanced TNM stage, tumor nodule without complete capsule, poorer cell differentiation, and shorter recurrence-free survival. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-100 dramatically suppressed the ability of HCC cells to migrate and to invade through Matrigel in vitro. Analyses using mouse orthotopic xenograft model further revealed that xenografts of miR-100-stable-expressing HCC cells displayed a significant reduction in pulmonary metastasis, compared with control group. Subsequent investigations revealed that miR-100 directly inhibited the expression of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) by binding to their 3'-UTRs, and in turn suppressed lamellipodia formation and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) activation. Furthermore, knockdown of ICMT and Rac1 phenocopied the anti-metastasis effect of miR-100, whereas overexpression of the constitutively active Rac1 (Q61L) antagonized the function of miR-100. Taken together, miR-100 represses metastasis of HCC cells by abrogating the ICMT-Rac1 signaling. Downregulation of miR-100 contributes to HCC metastasis and the restoration of miR-100 is a potential strategy for cancer therapy.
|Wnt7a stimulates myogenic stem cell motility and engraftment resulting in improved muscle strength.|
Bentzinger, CF; von Maltzahn, J; Dumont, NA; Stark, DA; Wang, YX; Nhan, K; Frenette, J; Cornelison, DD; Rudnicki, MA
The Journal of cell biology 205 97-111 2014
Wnt7a/Fzd7 signaling stimulates skeletal muscle growth and repair by inducing the symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells through the planar cell polarity pathway and by activating the Akt/mTOR growth pathway in muscle fibers. Here we describe a third level of activity where Wnt7a/Fzd7 increases the polarity and directional migration of mouse satellite cells and human myogenic progenitors through activation of Dvl2 and the small GTPase Rac1. Importantly, these effects can be exploited to potentiate the outcome of myogenic cell transplantation into dystrophic muscles. We observed that a short Wnt7a treatment markedly stimulated tissue dispersal and engraftment, leading to significantly improved muscle function. Moreover, myofibers at distal sites that fused with Wnt7a-treated cells were hypertrophic, suggesting that the transplanted cells deliver activated Wnt7a/Fzd7 signaling complexes to recipient myofibers. Taken together, we describe a viable and effective ex vivo cell modulation process that profoundly enhances the efficacy of stem cell therapy for skeletal muscle.
|Novel mechanism of JNK pathway activation by adenoviral E1A.|
Romanov, VS; Brichkina, AI; Morrison, H; Pospelova, TV; Pospelov, VA; Herrlich, P
Oncotarget 5 2176-86 2014
The adenoviral oncoprotein E1A influences cellular regulation by interacting with a number of cellular proteins. In collaboration with complementary oncogenes, E1A fully transforms primary cells. As part of this action, E1A inhibits transcription of c-Jun:Fos target genes while promoting that of c-Jun:ATF2-dependent genes including jun. Both c-Jun and ATF2 are hyperphosphorylated in response to E1A. In the current study, E1A was fused with the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor (E1A-ER) to monitor the immediate effect of E1A activation. With this approach we now show that E1A activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the upstream kinases MKK4 and MKK7, as well as the small GTPase Rac1. Activation of the JNK pathway requires the N-terminal domain of E1A, and, importantly, is independent of transcription. In addition, it requires the presence of ERM proteins. Downregulation of signaling components upstream of JNK inhibits E1A-dependent JNK/c-Jun activation. Taking these findings together, we show that E1A activates the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway upstream of Rac1 in a transcription-independent manner, demonstrating a novel mechanism of E1A action.
|EZH2 regulates cofilin activity and colon cancer cell migration by targeting ITGA2 gene.|
Ferraro, A; Boni, T; Pintzas, A
PloS one 9 e115276 2014
Reorganization of cytoskeleton via actin remodeling is a basic step of cell locomotion. Although cell migration of normal and cancer cells can be stimulated by a variety of intra- and extra-cellular factors, all paths ultimate on the regulation of cofilin activity. Cofilin is a small actin-binding protein able to bind both forms of actin, globular and filament, and is regulated by phosphorylation at Serine 3. Following phosphorylation at serine 3 cofilin is inactive, therefore cannot bind actin molecules and cytoskeleton remodeling is impaired. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is frequently over expressed in many tumour types including colorectal cancer (CRC). EZH2 over activity, which results in epigenetic gene-silencing, has been associated with many tumour properties including invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis but little is known about the underneath molecular mechanisms. Herein, we report that EZH2 is able to control cofilin activity and consequently cell locomotion of CRC cell lines through a non-conventional novel axis that involves integrin signaling. Indeed, we show how genetic and pharmacological inhibition (DZNep and GSK343) of EZH2 function produces hyper phosphorylation of cofilin and reduces cell migration. We previously demonstrated by chromatin immuno-precipitation that Integrin alpha 2 (ITGα2) expression is regulated by EZH2. In the present study we provide evidence that in EZH2-silenced cells the signaling activity of the de-repressed ITGα2 is able to increase cofilin phosphorylation, which in turn reduces cell migration. This study also proposes novel mechanisms that might provide new anti-metastatic strategies for CRC treatment based on the inhibition of the epigenetic factor EZH2 and/or its target gene.
|Western Blotting Tools|