|Hemopoietic growth factors with the exception of interleukin-4 activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.|
Foltz, I N, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 272: 3296-301 (1997)
The mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologue p38 has been shown to be activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as physical and chemical stresses. We now show that a variety of hemopoietic growth factors, including Steel locus factor, colony stimulating factor-1, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and interleukin-3, activate p38 MAP kinase and the downstream kinase MAPKAP kinase-2. Furthermore, although these growth factors activate both p38 MAP kinase and Erk MAP kinases, we demonstrate using a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SB 203580, that p38 MAP kinase activity was required for MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-2 activation. Conversely p38 MAP kinase was shown not to be required for in vivo activation of p90(rsk), known to be downstream of the Erk MAP kinases. Interleukin-4 was unique among the hemopoietic growth factors we examined in failing to induce activation of either p38 MAP kinase or MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-2. These findings demonstrate that the activation of p38 MAP kinase is involved not only in responses to stresses but also in signaling by growth factors that regulate the normal development and function of cells of the immune system.
|Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: role in bitter taste transduction.|
Hwang, P M, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 87: 7395-9 (1990)
To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of 45Ca2+, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of [3H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from [3H]cytidine. Accumulated 45Ca2+, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant.