Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, Po, R||IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Application||Anti-SHC Antibody is an antibody against SHC for use in IH, IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||250 µg|
|Anti-SHC (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2388927||2388927|
|Anti-SHC (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2424747||2424747|
|Anti-SHC (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2926127|
|Anti-SHC (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2189943||2189943|
|Anti-SHC - 15785||15785|
|Anti-SHC - 17710||17710|
|Anti-SHC - 18399||18399|
|Anti-SHC - 19704||19704|
|Anti-SHC - 21554||21554|
|Anti-SHC - 23039||23039|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Constitutive and ligand-induced EGFR signalling triggers distinct and mutually exclusive downstream signalling networks.|
Chakraborty, S; Li, L; Puliyappadamba, VT; Guo, G; Hatanpaa, KJ; Mickey, B; Souza, RF; Vo, P; Herz, J; Chen, MR; Boothman, DA; Pandita, TK; Wang, DH; Sen, GC; Habib, AA
Nature communications 5 5811 2014
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression plays an important oncogenic role in cancer. Regular EGFR protein levels are increased in cancer cells and the receptor then becomes constitutively active. However, downstream signals generated by constitutively activated EGFR are unknown. Here we report that the overexpressed EGFR oscillates between two distinct and mutually exclusive modes of signalling. Constitutive or non-canonical EGFR signalling activates the transcription factor IRF3 leading to expression of IFI27, IFIT1 and TRAIL. Ligand-mediated activation of EGFR switches off IRF3-dependent transcription, activates canonical extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signals, and confers sensitivity to chemotherapy and virus-induced cell death. Mechanistically, the distinct downstream signals result from a switch of EGFR-associated proteins. EGFR constitutively complexes with IRF3 and TBK1 leading to TBK1 and IRF3 phosphorylation. Addition of epidermal growth factor dissociates TBK1, IRF3 and EGFR leading to a loss of IRF3 activity, Shc-EGFR association and ERK activation. Finally, we provide evidence for non-canonical EGFR signalling in glioblastoma.
|Iron modulates cell survival in a Ras- and MAPK-dependent manner in ovarian cells.|
Bauckman, KA; Haller, E; Flores, I; Nanjundan, M
Cell death & disease 4 e592 2013
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. While the majority of ovarian cancers are serous, some rarer subtypes (i.e. clear cell) are often associated with endometriosis, a benign gynecological disease. Iron is rich in the cyst fluid of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers and induces persistent oxidative stress. The role of iron, an essential nutrient involved in multiple cellular functions, in normal ovarian cell survival and ovarian cancer remains unclear. Iron, presented as ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), dramatically inhibits cell survival in ovarian cancer cell types associated with Ras mutations, while it is without effect in immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial (T80) and endometriotic epithelial cells (lacking Ras mutations). Interestingly, FAC induced changes in cytoplasmic vacuolation concurrently with increases in LC3-II levels (an autophagy marker); these changes occurred in an ATG5/ATG7-dependent, beclin-1/hVps34-independent, and Ras-independent manner. Knockdown of autophagy mediators in HEY ovarian cancer cells reversed FAC-induced LC3-II levels, but there was little effect on reversing the cell death response. Intriguingly, transmission electron microscopy of FAC-treated T80 cells demonstrated abundant lysosomes (confirmed using Lysotracker) rich in iron particles, which occurred in a Ras-independent manner. Although the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, U0126, reversed FAC-induced LC3-II/autophagic punctae and lysosomes in a Ras-independent manner, it was remarkable that U0126 reversed cell death in malignant ovarian cells associated with Ras mutations. Moreover, FAC increased heme oxygenase-1 expression in H-Ras-overexpressing T80 cells, which was associated with increased cell death when overexpressed in T80 cells. Disruption of intracellular iron levels, via chelation of intracellular iron (deferoxamine), was also detrimental to malignant ovarian cell survival; thus, homeostatic intracellular iron levels are essential for cell survival. Collectively, our results implicate iron in modulating cell death in a Ras- and MAPK-dependent manner in ovarian cancer cells.
|SnoN/SkiL expression is modulated via arsenic trioxide-induced activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in ovarian cancer cells.|
Kodigepalli, KM; Dutta, PS; Bauckman, KA; Nanjundan, M
FEBS letters 587 5-16 2013
SnoN/SkiL (TGFβ regulator) is dysregulated in ovarian cancer, a disease associated with acquired drug-resistance. Arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃, used in treating APL) induces SnoN to oppose the apoptotic response in ovarian cancer cells. We now report that As₂O₃ increases phosphorylation of EGFR/p66ShcA and EGFR degradation. As₂O₃ activates Src(Y416) whose activity (inhibited by PP2) modulates EGFR activation, its interaction with Shc/Grb2, and p-AKT. Inhibition of PI3K reduces SnoN and cell survival. Although EGFR or MAPK1 siRNA did not alter SnoN expression, As₂O₃-induced cleaved PARP was reduced together with increased XIAP. Collectively, As₂O₃ mediates an initial rise in pY-Src(416) to regulate the PI3K/AKT pathway which increases SnoN and cell survival; these early events may counter the cell death response associated with increased pY-EGFR/MAPK activation.
|Arginase-II induces vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and apoptosis through p66Shc and p53 independently of its l-arginine ureahydrolase activity: implications for atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.|
Xiong, Y; Yu, Y; Montani, JP; Yang, Z; Ming, XF
Journal of the American Heart Association 2 e000096 2013
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence and apoptosis are involved in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. Arginase-II (Arg-II) has been shown to promote vascular dysfunction and plaque vulnerability phenotypes in mice through uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and activation of macrophage inflammation. The function of Arg-II in VSMCs with respect to plaque vulnerability is unknown. This study investigated the functions of Arg-II in VSMCs linking to plaque vulnerability.In vitro studies were performed on VSMCs isolated from human umbilical veins, whereas in vivo studies were performed on atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. In nonsenescent VSMCs, overexpressing wild-type Arg-II or an l-arginine ureahydrolase inactive Arg-II mutant (H160F) caused similar effects on mitochondrial dysfunction, cell apoptosis, and senescence, which were abrogated by silencing p66Shc or p53. The activation of p66Shc but not p53 by Arg-II was dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and sequential activation of 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). In senescent VSMCs, Arg-II and S6K1, ERK-p66Shc, and p53 signaling levels were increased. Silencing Arg-II reduced all these signalings and cell senescence/apoptosis. Conversely, silencing p66Shc reduced ERK and S6K1 signaling and Arg-II levels and cell senescence/apoptosis. Furthermore, genetic ablation of Arg-II in ApoE(-/-) mice reduced the aforementioned signaling and apoptotic VSMCs in the plaque of aortic roots.Arg-II, independently of its l-arginine ureahydrolase activity, promotes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to VSMC senescence/apoptosis through complex positive crosstalk among S6K1-JNK, ERK, p66Shc, and p53, contributing to atherosclerotic vulnerability phenotypes in mice.
|Blockade of phospholipid scramblase 1 with its N-terminal domain antibody reduces tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinomas in vitro and in vivo.|
Fan, CW; Chen, CY; Chen, KT; Shen, CR; Kuo, YB; Chen, YS; Chou, YP; Wei, WS; Chan, EC
Journal of translational medicine 10 254 2012
Membrane-bound phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is involved in both lipid trafficking and cell signaling. Previously, we showed that PLSCR1 is overexpressed in many colorectal carcinomas (CRCs). In the present study, we investigated the tumorigenic role of PLSCR1 in CRC and suggest that it is a potential therapeutic target.To identify PLSCR1 as a therapeutic target, we studied the tumorigenic properties of CRC cell lines treated with a monoclonal antibody (NP1) against the N-terminus of PLSCR1 in vitro and in vivo. We also investigated cell cycle status and epidermal growth factor receptor-related pathways and downstream effectors of PLSCR1 after blocking its function with NP1.Treating CRC cells with NP1 in vitro and in vivo decreased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion. Adding NP1 to the CRC cell line HT29 caused arrest at G1/S. Treating HT29 cells with NP1 significantly decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and phosphorylation levels of Src, the adaptor protein Shc, and Erks. The reduced level of cyclin D1 led to an increase in the activated form of the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein via dephosphorylation. These actions led to attenuation of tumorigenesis.Therefore, PLSCR1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for CRC.
|Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity bound to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor, which is continuously sustained by IGF-I stimulation, is required for IGF-I-induced cell proliferation.|
Fukushima, T; Nakamura, Y; Yamanaka, D; Shibano, T; Chida, K; Minami, S; Asano, T; Hakuno, F; Takahashi, S
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 29713-21 2012
Continuous stimulation of cells with insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in G(1) phase is a well established requirement for IGF-induced cell proliferation; however, the molecular components of this prolonged signaling pathway that is essential for cell cycle progression from G(1) to S phase are unclear. IGF-I activates IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) tyrosine kinase, followed by phosphorylation of substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) leading to binding of signaling molecules containing SH2 domains, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to IRS and activation of the downstream signaling pathways. In this study, we found prolonged (greater than 9 h) association of PI3K with IGF-IR induced by IGF-I stimulation. PI3K activity was present in this complex in thyrocytes and fibroblasts, although tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS was not yet evident after 9 h of IGF-I stimulation. IGF-I withdrawal in mid-G(1) phase impaired the association of PI3K with IGF-IR and suppressed DNA synthesis the same as when PI3K inhibitor was added. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Tyr(1316)-X-X-Met of IGF-IR functioned as a PI3K binding sequence when this tyrosine is phosphorylated. We then analyzed IGF signaling and proliferation of IGF-IR(-/-) fibroblasts expressing exogenous mutant IGF-IR in which Tyr(1316) was substituted with Phe (Y1316F). In these cells, IGF-I stimulation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-IR and IRS-1/2, but mutated IGF-IR failed to bind PI3K and to induce maximal phosphorylation of GSK3β and cell proliferation in response to IGF-I. Based on these results, we concluded that PI3K activity bound to IGF-IR, which is continuously sustained by IGF-I stimulation, is required for IGF-I-induced cell proliferation.
|Identification of MET and SRC activation in melanoma cell lines showing primary resistance to PLX4032.|
Vergani, E; Vallacchi, V; Frigerio, S; Deho, P; Mondellini, P; Perego, P; Cassinelli, G; Lanzi, C; Testi, MA; Rivoltini, L; Bongarzone, I; Rodolfo, M
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 13 1132-42 2011
PLX4032/vemurafenib is a first-in-class small-molecule BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with clinical activity in patients with BRAF mutant melanoma. Nevertheless, drug resistance develops in treated patients, and strategies to overcome primary and acquired resistance are required. To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in primary resistance to PLX4032, we investigated its effects on cell proliferation and signaling in a panel of 27 genetically characterized patient-derived melanoma cell lines. Cell sensitivity to PLX4032 was dependent on BRAF(V600E) and independent from other gene alterations that commonly occur in melanoma such as PTEN loss, BRAF, and MITF gene amplification. Two cell lines lacking sensitivity to PLX4032 and harboring a different set of genetic alterations were studied as models of primary resistance. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor UO126 but not with PLX4032 inhibited cell growth and ERK activation. Resistance to PLX4032 was maintained after CRAF down-regulation by siRNA indicating alternative activation of MEK-ERK signaling. Genetic characterization by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and analysis of phosphotyrosine signaling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed the activation of MET and SRC signaling, associated with the amplification of MET and of CTNNB1 and CCND1 genes, respectively. The combination of PLX4032 with drugs or siRNA targeting MET was effective in inhibiting cell growth and reducing cell invasion and migration in melanoma cells with MET amplification; similar effects were observed after targeting SRC in the other cell line, indicating a role for MET and SRC signaling in primary resistance to PLX4032. Our results support the development of classification of melanoma in molecular subtypes for more effective therapies.
|Increased Level of Phosphorylated ShcA Measured by Chemiluminescence-Linked Immunoassay Is a Predictor of Good Prognosis in Primary Breast Cancer Expressing Low Levels of Estrogen Receptor.|
Cicenas, J; Küng, W; Eppenberger, U; Eppenberger-Castori, S
Cancers 2 153-64 2010
The SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein ShcA is a proto-oncogene involved in growth factor receptor signaling. The role of phosphorylated ShcA is to link receptor tyrosine kinases with the SH2-containing adaptor protein Grb2, thus facilitating signal transduction from receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras, leading to MAPK activation. The present study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of phosphorylated ShcA in primary breast cancer and its association in the interactions between the ER and ErbB2 pathways. Using a two-site chemiluminescence-linked immunosorbent assay, we detected the quantitative expression levels of total tyrosine- and threonine-phosphorylated ShcA in cytosol fractions obtained from fresh frozen tissue samples of 153 selected primary breast cancer patients. ShcA phosphorylation was not associated with nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER) status or grading. High levels of both tyrosine (pYShcA) and serine (pSShcA) phosphorylated ShcA correlated with good prognosis (p less than 0.01), with respect to both disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In addition, pShcA levels were found to correlate with threonine-phosphorylated ErbB2 and inversely with phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), as well as ErbB2 and ER expression levels. Our findings demonstrate that ShcA activation in primary breast cancer patients correlates with low levels of ER, and is associated with good prognosis.
|Coordinate regulation of estrogen-mediated fibronectin matrix assembly and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR30.|
Quinn, JA; Graeber, CT; Frackelton, AR; Kim, M; Schwarzbauer, JE; Filardo, EJ
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 23 1052-64 2009
Estrogen promotes changes in cytoskeletal architecture not easily attributed to the biological action of estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. The Gs protein-coupled transmembrane receptor, GPR30, is linked to specific estrogen binding and rapid estrogen-mediated release of heparin-bound epidermal growth factor. Using marker rescue and dominant interfering mutant strategies, we show that estrogen action via GPR30 promotes fibronectin (FN) matrix assembly by human breast cancer cells. Stimulation with 17beta-estradiol or the ER antagonist, ICI 182, 780, results in the recruitment of FN-engaged integrin alpha5beta1 conformers to fibrillar adhesions and the synthesis of FN fibrils. Concurrent with this cellular response, GPR30 promotes the formation of Src-dependent, Shc-integrin alpha5beta1 complexes. Function-blocking antibodies directed against integrin alpha5beta1 or soluble Arg-Gly-Asp peptide fragments derived from FN specifically inhibited GPR30-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation. Estrogen-mediated FN matrix assembly and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation were similarly disrupted in integrin beta1-deficient GE11 cells, whereas reintroduction of integrin beta1 into GE11 cells restored these responses. Mutant Shc (317Y/F) blocked GPR30-induced FN matrix assembly and tyrosyl phosphorylation of erbB1. Interestingly, relative to recombinant wild-type Shc, 317Y/F Shc was more readily retained in GPR30-induced integrin alpha5beta1 complexes, yet this mutant did not prevent endogenous Shc-integrin alpha5beta1 complex formation. Our results suggest that GPR30 coordinates estrogen-mediated FN matrix assembly and growth factor release in human breast cancer cells via a Shc-dependent signaling mechanism that activates integrin alpha5beta1.Full Text Article
|Activation of platelet-activating factor receptor and pleiotropic effects on tyrosine phospho-EGFR/Src/FAK/paxillin in ovarian cancer.|
Margarita Aponte, Wei Jiang, Montaha Lakkis, Ming-Jiang Li, Dale Edwards, Lina Albitar, Allison Vitonis, Samuel C Mok, Daniel W Cramer, Bin Ye
Cancer research 68 5839-48 2008
Among the proinflammatory mediators, platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine) is a major primary and secondary messenger involved in intracellular and extracellular communication. Evidence suggests that PAF plays a significant role in oncogenic transformation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, PAF, with its receptor (PAFR) and their downstream signaling targets, has not been thoroughly studied in cancer. Here, we characterized the PAFR expression pattern in 4 normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines, 13 ovarian cancer cell lines, paraffin blocks (n = 84), and tissue microarrays (n = 230) from patients with ovarian cancer. Overexpression of PAFR was found in most nonmucinous types of ovarian cancer but not in HOSE and mucinous cancer cells. Correspondingly, PAF significantly induced cell proliferation and invasion only in PAFR-positive cells (i.e., OVCA429 and OVCA432), but not in PAFR-negative ovarian cells (HOSE and mucinous RMUG-L). The dependency of cell proliferation and invasion on PAFR was further confirmed using PAFR-specific small interfering RNA gene silencing probes, antibodies against PAFR and PAFR antagonist, ginkgolide B. Using quantitative multiplex phospho-antibody array technology, we found that tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR/Src/FAK/paxillin was coordinately activated by PAF treatment, which was correlated with the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and cyclin D1 as markers for cell proliferation, as well as matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 for invasion. Specific tyrosine Src inhibitor (PP2) reversibly blocked PAF-activated cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We suggest that PAFR is an essential upstream target of Src and other signal pathways to control the PAF-mediated cancer progression.Full Text Article