Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Application||Anti-SMC2/hCAP-E Antibody is a high quality Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody for the detection of SMC2/hCAP-E & has been validated in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-SMC2/hCAP-E (rabbit antiserum)||2982352|
|Anti-SMC2/hCAP-E - 30447||30447|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Human SMC2 protein, a core subunit of human condensin complex, is a novel transcriptional target of the WNT signaling pathway and a new therapeutic target.|
Dávalos, V; Súarez-López, L; Castaño, J; Messent, A; Abasolo, I; Fernandez, Y; Guerra-Moreno, A; Espín, E; Armengol, M; Musulen, E; Ariza, A; Sayós, J; Arango, D; Schwartz, S
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 43472-81 2012
Human SMC2 is part of the condensin complex, which is responsible for tightly packaging replicated genomic DNA prior to segregation into daughter cells. Engagement of the WNT signaling pathway is known to have a mitogenic effect on cells, but relatively little is known about WNT interaction with mitotic structural organizer proteins. In this work, we described the novel transcriptional regulation of SMC2 protein by direct binding of the β-catenin·TCF4 transcription factor to the SMC2 promoter. Furthermore, we identified the precise region in the SMC2 promoter that is required for β-catenin-mediated promoter activation. Finally, we explored the functional significance of down-regulating SMC2 protein in vivo. Treatment of WNT-activated intestinal tumor cells with SMC2 siRNA significantly reduced cell proliferation in nude mice, compared with untreated controls (p = 0.02). Therefore, we propose that WNT signaling can directly activate SMC2 transcription as a key player in the mitotic cell division machinery. Furthermore, SMC2 represents a new target for oncological therapeutic intervention.
|Differential contributions of condensin I and condensin II to mitotic chromosome architecture in vertebrate cells.|
Ono, Takao, et al.
Cell, 115: 109-21 (2003) 2003
The canonical condensin complex (henceforth condensin I) plays an essential role in mitotic chromosome assembly and segregation from yeast to humans. We report here the identification of a second condensin complex (condensin II) from vertebrate cells. Condensins I and II share the same pair of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits but contain different sets of non-SMC subunits. siRNA-mediated depletion of condensin I- or condensin II-specific subunits in HeLa cells produces a distinct, highly characteristic defect in chromosome morphology. Simultaneous depletion of both complexes causes the severest defect. In Xenopus egg extracts, condensin I function is predominant, but lack of condensin II results in the formation of irregularly shaped chromosomes. Condensins I and II show different distributions along the axis of chromosomes assembled in vivo and in vitro. We propose that the two condensin complexes make distinct mechanistic contributions to mitotic chromosome architecture in vertebrate cells.
|Kleisins: a superfamily of bacterial and eukaryotic SMC protein partners.|
Schleiffer, Alexander, et al.
Mol. Cell, 11: 571-5 (2003) 2003
We describe a superfamily of eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins (kleisins) that includes ScpA, Scc1, Rec8, and Barren. Scc1 interacts with SMC proteins through N- and C-terminal domains to form a ring-like structure. Since these are the only domains conserved among kleisins, we suggest that ring formation with SMC proteins may define this family.
|Identification of a subunit of a novel Kleisin-beta/SMC complex as a potential substrate of protein phosphatase 2A|
Yeong, F. M., et al
Curr Biol, 13:2058-64 (2003) 2003
|Classification, subtype discovery, and prediction of outcome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia by gene expression profiling.|
Yeoh, Eng-Juh, et al.
Cancer Cell, 1: 133-43 (2002) 2002
Treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is based on the concept of tailoring the intensity of therapy to a patient's risk of relapse. To determine whether gene expression profiling could enhance risk assignment, we used oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze the pattern of genes expressed in leukemic blasts from 360 pediatric ALL patients. Distinct expression profiles identified each of the prognostically important leukemia subtypes, including T-ALL, E2A-PBX1, BCR-ABL, TEL-AML1, MLL rearrangement, and hyperdiploid >50 chromosomes. In addition, another ALL subgroup was identified based on its unique expression profile. Examination of the genes comprising the expression signatures provided important insights into the biology of these leukemia subgroups. Further, within some genetic subgroups, expression profiles identified those patients that would eventually fail therapy. Thus, the single platform of expression profiling should enhance the accurate risk stratification of pediatric ALL patients.
|Chromosome condensation by a human condensin complex in Xenopus egg extracts.|
Kimura, K, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 276: 5417-20 (2001) 2001
13S condensin is a five-subunit protein complex that plays a central role in mitotic chromosome condensation. The condensin complex was originally identified and purified from Xenopus egg extracts and shown to have an ATP-dependent positive supercoiling activity in vitro. We report here the characterization of a human condensin complex purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts. The human 13S complex has exactly the same composition as its Xenopus counterpart, being composed of two structural maintenance of chromosomes (human chromosome-associated polypeptide (hCAP)-C and hCAP-E) subunits and three non-structural maintenance of chromosomes (hCAP-D2/CNAP1, hCAP-G, and hCAP-H/BRRN) subunits. Human condensin purified from asynchronous HeLa cell cultures fails to reconfigure DNA structure in vitro. When phosphorylated by purified cdc2-cyclin B, however, it gains the ability to introduce positive supercoils into DNA in the presence of ATP and topoisomerase I. Strikingly, human condensin can induce chromosome condensation when added back into a Xenopus egg extract that has been immunodepleted of endogenous condensin. Thus, the structure and function of the condensin complex are highly conserved between Xenopus and humans, underscoring its fundamental importance in mitotic chromosome dynamics in eukaryotic cells.
|A human condensin complex containing hCAP-C-hCAP-E and CNAP1, a homolog of Xenopus XCAP-D2, colocalizes with phosphorylated histone H3 during the early stage of mitotic chromosome condensation.|
Schmiesing, J A, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 20: 6996-7006 (2000) 2000
Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family proteins play critical roles in structural changes of chromosomes. Previously, we identified two human SMC family proteins, hCAP-C and hCAP-E, which form a heterodimeric complex (hCAP-C-hCAP-E) in the cell. Based on the sequence conservation and mitotic chromosome localization, hCAP-C-hCAP-E was determined to be the human ortholog of the Xenopus SMC complex, XCAP-C-XCAP-E. XCAP-C-XCAP-E is a component of the multiprotein complex termed condensin, required for mitotic chromosome condensation in vitro. However, presence of such a complex has not been demonstrated in mammalian cells. Coimmunoprecipitation of the endogenous hCAP-C-hCAP-E complex from HeLa extracts identified a 155-kDa protein interacting with hCAP-C-hCAP-E, termed condensation-related SMC-associated protein 1 (CNAP1). CNAP1 associates with mitotic chromosomes and is homologous to Xenopus condensin component XCAP-D2, indicating the presence of a condensin complex in human cells. Chromosome association of human condensin is mitosis specific, and the majority of condensin dissociates from chromosomes and is sequestered in the cytoplasm throughout interphase. However, a subpopulation of the complex was found to remain on chromosomes as foci in the interphase nucleus. During late G(2)/early prophase, the larger nuclear condensin foci colocalize with phosphorylated histone H3 clusters on partially condensed regions of chromosomes. These results suggest that mitosis-specific function of human condensin may be regulated by cell cycle-specific subcellular localization of the complex, and the nuclear condensin that associates with interphase chromosomes is involved in the reinitiation of mitotic chromosome condensation in conjunction with phosphorylation of histone H3.
|Identification of two distinct human SMC protein complexes involved in mitotic chromosome dynamics.|
Schmiesing, J A, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 95: 12906-11 (1998) 1998
The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family member proteins previously were shown to play a critical role in mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation in yeast and Xenopus. Other family members were demonstrated to be required for DNA repair in yeast and mammals. Although several different SMC proteins were identified in different organisms, little is known about the SMC proteins in humans. Here, we report the identification of four human SMC proteins that form two distinct heterodimeric complexes in the cell, the human chromosome-associated protein (hCAP)-C and hCAP-E protein complex (hCAP-C/hCAP-E), and the human SMC1 (hSMC1) and hSMC3 protein complex (hSMC1/hSMC3). The hCAP-C/hCAP-E complex is the human ortholog of the Xenopus chromosome-associated protein (XCAP)-C/XCAP-E complex required for mitotic chromosome condensation. We found that a second complex, hSMC1/hSMC3, is required for metaphase progression in mitotic cells. Punctate vs. diffuse distribution patterns of the hCAP-C/hCAP-E and hSMC1/hSMC3 complexes in the interphase nucleus indicate independent behaviors of the two complexes during the cell cycle. These results suggest that two distinct classes of SMC protein complexes are involved in different aspects of mitotic chromosome organization in human cells.