Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||EMSA, ICC, IP, WB, ChIP||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A purified rabbit IgG in 200 L of 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide. Frozen at -20°C.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-STAT3 - 2453259||2453259|
|Anti-STAT3 - 15772||15772|
|Anti-STAT3 - 17470||17470|
|Anti-STAT3 - 1951972||1951972|
|Anti-STAT3 - 2019513||2019513|
|Anti-STAT3 - 2040087||2040087|
|Anti-STAT3 - 2189947||2189947|
|Anti-STAT3 - 22775||22775|
|Anti-STAT3 - 2309071||2309071|
|Anti-STAT3 - 24010||24010|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Glutamine Deprivation Causes Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Interleukin-8 Expression via Jak1/Stat3 Activation in Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells.|
Lee, YM; Kim, MJ; Kim, Y; Kim, H
Journal of cancer prevention 20 179-84 2015
The Janus kinase (Jak)/Signal transducers of activated transcription (Stat) pathway is an upstream signaling pathway for NF-κB activation in Helicobacter pylori-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in gastric epithelial AGS cells. H. pylori activates NADPH oxidase and produces hydrogen peroxide, which activates Jak1/Stat3 in AGS cells. Therefore, hydrogen peroxide may be critical for IL-8 production via Jak/Stat activation in gastric epithelial cells. Glutamine is depleted during severe injury and stress and contributes to the formation of glutathione (GSH), which is involved in conversion of hydrogen peroxide into water as a cofactor for GSH peroxidase.We investigated whether glutamine deprivation induces hydrogen peroxide-mediated IL-8 production and whether hydrogen peroxide activates Jak1/Stat3 to induce IL-8 in AGS cells. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of glutamine or hydrogen peroxide, with or without GSH or a the Jak/Stat specific inhibitor AG490.Glutamine deprivation decreased GSH levels, but increased levels of hydrogen peroxide and IL-8, an effect that was inhibited by treatment with GSH. Hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of Jak1/Stat3 time-dependently. AG490 suppressed hydrogen peroxide- induced activation of Jak1/Stat3 and IL-8 expression in AGS cells, but did not affect levels of reactive oxygen species in AGS cells.In gastric epithelial AGS cells, glutamine deprivation increases hydrogen peroxide levels and IL-8 expression, which may be mediated by Jak1/Stat3 activation. Glutamine supplementation may be beneficial for preventing gastric inflammation by suppressing hydrogen peroxide-mediated Jak1/Stat3 activation and therefore, reducing IL-8 production. Scavenging hydrogen peroxide or targeting Jak1/Stat3 may also prevent oxidant-mediated gastric inflammation.
|Jak1/Stat3 is an upstream signaling of NF-κB activation in Helicobacter pylori-induced IL-8 production in gastric epithelial AGS cells.|
Cha, B; Lim, JW; Kim, H
Yonsei medical journal 56 862-6 2015
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) and cytokine expression in gastric epithelial cells. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/Stat) cascade is the inflammatory signaling in various cells. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) are mediated by the activation of Jak1/Stat3 in gastric epithelial (AGS) cells. Thus, gastric epithelial AGS cells were infected with H. pylori in Korean isolates (HP99) at bacterium/cell ratio of 300:1, and the level of IL-8 in the medium was determined by enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay. Phospho-specific and total forms of Jak1/Stat3 and IκBα were assessed by Western blot analysis, and NF-κB activation was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The results showed that H. pylori induced the activation of Jak1/Stat3 and IL-8 production, which was inhibited by a Jak/Stat3 specific inhibitor AG490 in AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB, determined by phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB-DNA binding activity, were inhibited by AG490. In conclusion, Jak1/Stat3 activation may mediate the activation of NF-κB and the expression of IL-8 in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. Inhibition of Jak1/Stat3 may be beneficial for the treatment of H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation, since the activation of NF-κB is inhibited and inflammatory cytokine expression is suppressed.
|A novel role for histone deacetylase 6 in the regulation of the tolerogenic STAT3/IL-10 pathway in APCs.|
Cheng, F; Lienlaf, M; Wang, HW; Perez-Villarroel, P; Lee, C; Woan, K; Rock-Klotz, J; Sahakian, E; Woods, D; Pinilla-Ibarz, J; Kalin, J; Tao, J; Hancock, W; Kozikowski, A; Seto, E; Villagra, A; Sotomayor, EM
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 193 2850-62 2014
APCs are critical in T cell activation and in the induction of T cell tolerance. Epigenetic modifications of specific genes in the APC play a key role in this process, and among them histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as key participants. HDAC6, one of the members of this family of enzymes, has been shown to be involved in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, to our knowledge we show for the first time that genetic or pharmacologic disruption of HDAC6 in macrophages and dendritic cells results in diminished production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and induction of inflammatory APCs that effectively activate Ag-specific naive T cells and restore the responsiveness of anergic CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, we have found that HDAC6 forms a previously unknown molecular complex with STAT3, association that was detected in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of the APC. By using HDAC6 recombinant mutants we identified the domain comprising amino acids 503-840 as being required for HDAC6 interaction with STAT3. Furthermore, by re-chromatin immunoprecipitation we confirmed that HDAC6 and STAT3 are both recruited to the same DNA sequence within the Il10 gene promoter. Of note, disruption of this complex by knocking down HDAC6 resulted in decreased STAT3 phosphorylation--but no changes in STAT3 acetylation--as well as diminished recruitment of STAT3 to the Il10 gene promoter region. The additional demonstration that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor disrupts this STAT3/IL-10 tolerogenic axis points to HDAC6 as a novel molecular target in APCs to overcome immune tolerance and tips the balance toward T cell immunity.
|Radiation-enhanced lung cancer progression in a transgenic mouse model of lung cancer is predictive of outcomes in human lung and breast cancer.|
Delgado, O; Batten, KG; Richardson, JA; Xie, XJ; Gazdar, AF; Kaisani, AA; Girard, L; Behrens, C; Suraokar, M; Fasciani, G; Wright, WE; Story, MD; Wistuba, II; Minna, JD; Shay, JW
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 20 1610-22 2014
Carcinogenesis is an adaptive process between nascent tumor cells and their microenvironment, including the modification of inflammatory responses from antitumorigenic to protumorigenic. Radiation exposure can stimulate inflammatory responses that inhibit or promote carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of radiation exposure on lung cancer progression in vivo and assess the relevance of this knowledge to human carcinogenesis.K-ras(LA1) mice were irradiated with various doses and dose regimens and then monitored until death. Microarray analyses were performed using Illumina BeadChips on whole lung tissue 70 days after irradiation with a fractionated or acute dose of radiation and compared with age-matched unirradiated controls. Unique group classifiers were derived by comparative genomic analysis of three experimental cohorts. Survival analyses were performed using principal component analysis and k-means clustering on three lung adenocarcinoma, three breast adenocarcinoma, and two lung squamous carcinoma annotated microarray datasets.Radiation exposure accelerates lung cancer progression in the K-ras(LA1) lung cancer mouse model with dose fractionation being more permissive for cancer progression. A nonrandom inflammatory signature associated with this progression was elicited from whole lung tissue containing only benign lesions and predicts human lung and breast cancer patient survival across multiple datasets. Immunohistochemical analyses suggest that tumor cells drive predictive signature.These results demonstrate that radiation exposure can cooperate with benign lesions in a transgenic model of cancer by affecting inflammatory pathways, and that clinically relevant similarities exist between human lung and breast carcinogenesis.
|Nucleolar protein trafficking in response to HIV-1 Tat: rewiring the nucleolus.|
Jarboui, MA; Bidoia, C; Woods, E; Roe, B; Wynne, K; Elia, G; Hall, WW; Gautier, VW
PloS one 7 e48702 2012
The trans-activator Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein essential for HIV-1 replication. Tat trafficks to the nucleoplasm and the nucleolus. The nucleolus, a highly dynamic and structured membrane-less sub-nuclear compartment, is the site of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis and is involved in numerous cellular functions including transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control and viral infection. Importantly, transient nucleolar trafficking of both Tat and HIV-1 viral transcripts are critical in HIV-1 replication, however, the role(s) of the nucleolus in HIV-1 replication remains unclear. To better understand how the interaction of Tat with the nucleolar machinery contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis, we investigated the quantitative changes in the composition of the nucleolar proteome of Jurkat T-cells stably expressing HIV-1 Tat fused to a TAP tag. Using an organellar proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry, coupled with Stable Isotope Labelling in Cell culture (SILAC), we quantified 520 proteins, including 49 proteins showing significant changes in abundance in Jurkat T-cell nucleolus upon Tat expression. Numerous proteins exhibiting a fold change were well characterised Tat interactors and/or known to be critical for HIV-1 replication. This suggests that the spatial control and subcellular compartimentaliation of these cellular cofactors by Tat provide an additional layer of control for regulating cellular machinery involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Pathway analysis and network reconstruction revealed that Tat expression specifically resulted in the nucleolar enrichment of proteins collectively participating in ribosomal biogenesis, protein homeostasis, metabolic pathways including glycolytic, pentose phosphate, nucleotides and amino acids biosynthetic pathways, stress response, T-cell signaling pathways and genome integrity. We present here the first differential profiling of the nucleolar proteome of T-cells expressing HIV-1 Tat. We discuss how these proteins collectively participate in interconnected networks converging to adapt the nucleolus dynamic activities, which favor host biosynthetic activities and may contribute to create a cellular environment supporting robust HIV-1 production.
|Preclinical characterization of atiprimod, a novel JAK2 AND JAK3 inhibitor.|
Alfonso Quintás-Cardama,Taghi Manshouri,Zeev Estrov,David Harris,Ying Zhang,Amos Gaikwad,Hagop M Kantarjian,Srdan Verstovsek
Investigational new drugs 29 2011
We herein report on the activity of the JAK2/JAK3 small molecule inhibitor atiprimod on mouse FDCP-EpoR cells carrying either wild-type (JAK2 (WT)) or mutant (JAK2 (V617F)) JAK2, human acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cells carrying JAK2 (V617F) (SET-2 cell line), and human acute megakaryocytic leukemia carrying mutated JAK3 (CMK cells). Atiprimod inhibited more efficaciously the proliferation of FDCP-EpoR JAK2 (V617F) (IC(50) 0.42 μM) and SET-2 cells (IC(50) 0.53 μM) than that of CMK (IC(50) 0.79 μM) or FDCP-EpoR JAK2 (WT) cells (IC(50) 0.69 μM). This activity was accompanied by inhibition of the phosphorylation of JAK2 and downstream signaling proteins STAT3, STAT5, and AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Atiprimod-induced cell growth inhibition of JAK2 (V617F)-positive cells was coupled with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by heightened mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activity, as well as PARP cleavage, increased turnover of the anti-apoptotic X-linked mammalian inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein, and inhibition of the pro-apoptotic protein BCL-2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, atiprimod was more effective at inhibiting the proliferation of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitors obtained from patients with JAK2 (V617F)-positive polycythemia vera than at inhibiting hematopoietic progenitors from normal individuals (p = 0.001). The effect on primary expanded erythroid progenitors was paralleled by a decrease in JAK2(V617F) mutant allele burden in single microaspirated BFU-E and CFU-GM colonies. Taken together, our data supports the clinical testing of atiprimod in patients with hematologic malignancies driven by constitutive activation of JAK2 or JAK3 kinases.
|NFĸB is an unexpected major mediator of interleukin-15 signaling in cerebral endothelia.|
Stone, KP; Kastin, AJ; Pan, W
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 28 115-24 2011
Interleukin (IL)-15 and its receptors are induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) in the cerebral endothelial cells composing the blood-brain barrier, but it is not yet clear how IL-15 modulates endothelial function. Contrary to the known induction of JAK/STAT3 signaling, here we found that nuclear factor (NF)- κB is mainly responsible for IL-15 actions on primary brain microvessel endothelial cells and cerebral endothelial cell lines. IL-15-induced transactivation of an NFκB luciferase reporter resulted in phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitory subunit IκB that was followed by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NFκB. An IκB kinase inhibitor Bay 11-7082 only partially inhibited IL-15-induced NFκB luciferase activity. The effect of IL-15 was mediated by its specific receptor IL-15Rα, since endothelia from IL-15Rα knockout mice showed delayed nuclear translocation of p65, whereas those from knockout mice lacking a co-receptor IL-2Rγ did not show such changes. At the mRNA level, IL-15 and TNF showed similar effects in decreasing the tight junction protein claudin-2 and increasing the p65 subunit of NFκB but exerted different regulation on caveolin-1 and vimentin. Taken together, NFκB is a major signal transducer by which IL-15 affects cellular permeability, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking at the level of the blood-brain barrier.
|Histone deacetylase inhibitor LAQ824 augments inflammatory responses in macrophages through transcriptional regulation of IL-10.|
Wang, H; Cheng, F; Woan, K; Sahakian, E; Merino, O; Rock-Klotz, J; Vicente-Suarez, I; Pinilla-Ibarz, J; Wright, KL; Seto, E; Bhalla, K; Villagra, A; Sotomayor, EM
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 3986-96 2011
APCs are important in the initiation of productive Ag-specific T cell responses and the induction of T cell anergy. The inflammatory status of the APC at the time of encounter with Ag-specific T cells plays a central role in determining such divergent T cell outcomes. A better understanding of the regulation of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes in its natural setting, the chromatin substrate, might provide novel insights to overcome anergic mechanisms mediated by APCs. In this study, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that treatment of BALB/c murine macrophages with the histone deacetylase inhibitor LAQ824 induces chromatin changes at the level of the IL-10 gene promoter that lead to enhanced recruitment of the transcriptional repressors HDAC11 and PU.1. Such an effect is associated with diminished IL-10 production and induction of inflammatory cells able of priming naive Ag-specific T cells, but more importantly, capable of restoring the responsiveness of anergized Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells.
|Bone marrow stroma-secreted cytokines protect JAK2(V617F)-mutated cells from the effects of a JAK2 inhibitor.|
Manshouri, T; Estrov, Z; Quintás-Cardama, A; Burger, J; Zhang, Y; Livun, A; Knez, L; Harris, D; Creighton, CJ; Kantarjian, HM; Verstovsek, S
Cancer research 71 3831-40 2011
Signals emanating from the bone marrow microenvironment, such as stromal cells, are thought to support the survival and proliferation of the malignant cells in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). To examine this hypothesis, we established a coculture platform [cells cocultured directly (cell-on-cell) or indirectly (separated by micropore membrane)] designed to interrogate the interplay between Janus activated kinase 2-V617F (JAK2(V617F))-positive cells and the stromal cells. Treatment with atiprimod, a potent JAK2 inhibitor, caused marked growth inhibition and apoptosis of human (SET-2) and mouse (FDCP-EpoR) JAK2(V617F)-positive cells as well as primary blood or bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with polycythemia vera; however, these effects were attenuated when any of these cell types were cocultured (cell-on-cell) with human marrow stromal cell lines (e.g., HS5, NK.tert, TM-R1). Coculture with stromal cells hampered the ability of atiprimod to inhibit phosphorylation of JAK2 and the downstream STAT3 and STAT5 pathways. This protective effect was maintained in noncontact coculture assays (JAK2(V617F)-positive cells separated by 0.4-μm-thick micropore membranes from stromal cells), indicating a paracrine effect. Cytokine profiling of supernatants from noncontact coculture assays detected distinctly high levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and chemokine C-X-C-motif ligand 10 (CXCL-10)/IFN-γ-inducible 10-kD protein (IP-10). Anti-IL-6, -FGF, or -CXCL-10/IP-10 neutralizing antibodies ablated the protective effect of stromal cells and restored atiprimod-induced apoptosis of JAK2(V617F)-positive cells. Therefore, our results indicate that humoral factors secreted by stromal cells protect MPN clones from JAK2 inhibitor therapy, thus underscoring the importance of targeting the marrow niche in MPN for therapeutic purposes.
|Phase 2 study of CEP-701, an orally available JAK2 inhibitor, in patients with primary or post-polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis.|
Santos FP, Kantarjian HM, Jain N, Manshouri T, Thomas DA, Garcia-Manero G, Kennedy D, Estrov Z, Cortes J, Verstovsek S
Blood 115 1131-6. Epub 2009 Dec 11. 2010
Few treatment options exist for patients with myelofibrosis (MF), and their survival is significantly shortened. Activating mutation of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase (JAK2(V617F)) is found in approximately 50% of MF patients. CEP-701 is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits JAK2 in in vitro and in vivo experiments. We conducted a phase 2 clinical study of CEP-701 in 22 JAK2(V617F)-positive MF patients (80 mg orally twice daily), and 6 (27%) responded by International Working Group criteria (clinical improvement in all cases): reduction in spleen size only (n = 3), transfusion independency (n = 2), and reduction in spleen size with improvement in cytopenias (n = 1). Median time to response was 3 months, and duration of response was more than or equal to 14 months. No improvement was seen in bone marrow fibrosis or JAK2(V617F) allele burden. Phosphorylated STAT3 levels decreased from baseline in responders while on therapy. Eight patients (36%) experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicity, and 6 (27%) required dose reduction. Main side effects were myelosuppression (grade 3 or 4 anemia, 14%; and thrombocytopenia, 23%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (diarrhea, any grade, 72%; grade 3 or 4, 9%; nausea, grade 1 or 2 only, 50%; vomiting, grade 1 or 2 only, 27%). In conclusion, CEP-701 resulted in modest efficacy and mild but frequent gastrointestinal toxicity in MF patients. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00494585.
|JAK/STAT Signaling Research Focus|