|Serum amyloid P component prevents high-density lipoprotein-mediated neutralization of lipopolysaccharide.|
de Haas, C J, et al.
Infect. Immun., 68: 4954-60 (2000)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an amphipathic macromolecule that is highly aggregated in aqueous preparations. LPS-binding protein (LBP) catalyzes the transfer of single LPS molecules, segregated from an LPS aggregate, to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which results in the neutralization of LPS. When fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled LPS (FITC-LPS) is used, this transfer of LPS monomers to HDL can be measured as an increase in fluorescence due to dequenching of FITC-LPS. Recently, serum amyloid P component (SAP) was shown to neutralize LPS in vitro, although only in the presence of low concentrations of LBP. In this study, we show that SAP prevented HDL-mediated dequenching of FITC-LPS, even in the presence of high concentrations of LBP. Human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a very potent LPS-binding and -neutralizing protein, also prevented HDL-mediated dequenching of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, SAP inhibited HDL-mediated neutralization of both rough and smooth LPS in a chemiluminescence assay quantifying the LPS-induced priming of neutrophils in human blood. SAP bound both isolated HDL and HDL in serum. Using HDL-coated magnetic beads prebound with SAP, we demonstrated that HDL-bound SAP prevented the binding of LPS to HDL. We suggest that SAP, by preventing LPS binding to HDL, plays a regulatory role, balancing the amount of LPS that, via HDL, is directed to the adrenal glands.
|A synthetic lipopolysaccharide-binding peptide based on amino acids 27-39 of serum amyloid P component inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced responses in human blood.|
de Haas, C J, et al.
J. Immunol., 161: 3607-15 (1998)
LPS-binding proteins in plasma play an important role in modifying LPS toxicity. Significant properties have already been attributed to the LPS-binding protein (LBP). It accelerates LPS toxicity as well as incorporation into high-density lipoproteins, leading to neutralization of LPS in serum. A search for other LPS-binding components in serum, using LPS-coated magnetic beads, revealed a new LPS-binding protein. N-terminal microsequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Purified SAP bound to smooth and rough types of LPS via the lipid A part. SAP inhibited the binding of FITC-labeled ReLPS (LPS from Salmonella minnesota strain R595) to human monocytes and the ReLPS-induced priming of the oxidative burst of human neutrophils only in the presence of low concentrations of LBP. In search for the LPS binding site of SAP, we found that pep27-39, a 13-mer peptide consisting of amino acids 27-39 of SAP, competitively inhibited the binding of LPS to SAP. In addition, pep27-39 significantly inhibited ReLPS-induced responses in phagocytes in the presence of serum, as well as in human whole blood. Carboxamidomethylated pep27-39 showed an even more pronounced reduction of the ReLPS-induced priming of phagocytes in human blood. Performing gel filtration of FITC-labeled ReLPS incubated with soluble CD14, we showed that SAP could not prevent binding of LPS to soluble CD14, in contrast to pep27-39. The ability of pep27-39 to antagonize specifically the effects of LPS in the complex environment of human blood suggests that pep27-39 may be a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of gram-negative sepsis.