Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Detect Smad3 with Anti-Smad3 Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||400 µg|
|Anti-Smad3 - 19649||19649|
|Anti-Smad3 - 23222||23222|
|Anti-Smad3 - 26524||26524|
|Anti-Smad3 - 31640||31640|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Smad3 mediates ANG II-induced hypertensive kidney disease in mice.|
Liu, Z; Huang, XR; Lan, HY
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 302 F986-97 2012
Although Smad3 is a key mediator for fibrosis, its functional role and mechanisms in hypertensive nephropathy remain largely unclear. This was examined in the present study in a mouse model of hypertension induced in Smad3 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by subcutaneous angiotensin II infusion and in vitro in mesangial cells lacking Smad3. After angiotensin II infusion, both Smad3 KO and WT mice developed equally high levels of blood pressure. However, disruption of Smad3 prevented angiotensin II-induced kidney injury by lowering albuminuria and serum creatinine (P less than 0.01), inhibiting renal fibrosis such as collagen type I and IV, fibronectin, and α-SMA expression (all P less than 0.01), and blocking renal inflammation including macrophage and T cell infiltration and upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in vivo and in vitro (all P less than 0.001). Further studies revealed that blockade of angiotensin II-induced renal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression and inhibition of Smurf2-mediated degradation of renal Smad7 are mechanisms by which Smad3 KO mice were protected from angiotensin II-induced renal fibrosis and NF-κB-driven renal inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, Smad3 is a key mediator of hypertensive nephropathy. Smad3 promotes Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of renal Smad7, thereby enhancing angiotensin II-induced TGF-β/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis and NF-κB-driven renal inflammation. Results from this study suggest that inhibition of Smad3 or overexpression of Smad7 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for hypertensive nephropathy.
|SMAD4-dependent barrier constrains prostate cancer growth and metastatic progression.|
Ding, Z; Wu, CJ; Chu, GC; Xiao, Y; Ho, D; Zhang, J; Perry, SR; Labrot, ES; Wu, X; Lis, R; Hoshida, Y; Hiller, D; Hu, B; Jiang, S; Zheng, H; Stegh, AH; Scott, KL; Signoretti, S; Bardeesy, N; Wang, YA; Hill, DE; Golub, TR; Stampfer, MJ; Wong, WH; Loda, M; Mucci, L; Chin, L; DePinho, RA
Nature 470 269-73 2011
Effective clinical management of prostate cancer (PCA) has been challenged by significant intratumoural heterogeneity on the genomic and pathological levels and limited understanding of the genetic elements governing disease progression. Here, we exploited the experimental merits of the mouse to test the hypothesis that pathways constraining progression might be activated in indolent Pten-null mouse prostate tumours and that inactivation of such progression barriers in mice would engender a metastasis-prone condition. Comparative transcriptomic and canonical pathway analyses, followed by biochemical confirmation, of normal prostate epithelium versus poorly progressive Pten-null prostate cancers revealed robust activation of the TGFβ/BMP-SMAD4 signalling axis. The functional relevance of SMAD4 was further supported by emergence of invasive, metastatic and lethal prostate cancers with 100% penetrance upon genetic deletion of Smad4 in the Pten-null mouse prostate. Pathological and molecular analysis as well as transcriptomic knowledge-based pathway profiling of emerging tumours identified cell proliferation and invasion as two cardinal tumour biological features in the metastatic Smad4/Pten-null PCA model. Follow-on pathological and functional assessment confirmed cyclin D1 and SPP1 as key mediators of these biological processes, which together with PTEN and SMAD4, form a four-gene signature that is prognostic of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemical recurrence and lethal metastasis in human PCA. This model-informed progression analysis, together with genetic, functional and translational studies, establishes SMAD4 as a key regulator of PCA progression in mice and humans.
|A positive role for Myc in TGFbeta-induced Snail transcription and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.|
Smith, AP; Verrecchia, A; Fagà, G; Doni, M; Perna, D; Martinato, F; Guccione, E; Amati, B
Oncogene 28 422-30 2009
Myc and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling are mutually antagonistic, that is Myc suppresses the activation of TGFbeta-induced genes, whereas TGFbeta represses c-myc transcription. Here, we report a positive role for Myc in the TGFbeta response, consisting in the induction of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the activation of the EMT-associated gene Snail. Knockdown of either Myc or the TGFbeta effectors SMAD3/4 in epithelial cells eliminated Snail induction by TGFbeta. Both Myc and SMAD complexes targeted the Snail promoter in vivo, DNA binding occurring in a mutually independent manner. Myc was bound prior to TGFbeta treatment, and was required for rapid Snail activation upon SMAD binding induced by TGFbeta. On the other hand, c-myc downregulation by TGFbeta was a slower event, occurring after Snail induction. The response of Snail to another cytokine, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also depended on Myc and SMAD4. Thus, contrary to their antagonistic effects on Cip1 and INK4b, Myc and SMADs cooperate in signal-dependent activation of Snail in epithelial cells. Although Myc also targeted the Snail promoter in serum-stimulated fibroblasts, it was dispensable for its activation in these conditions, further illustrating that the action of Myc in transcriptional regulation is context-dependent. Our findings suggest that Myc and TGFbeta signaling may cooperate in promoting EMT and metastasis in carcinomas.
|Regulation of TGF-beta signalling by Fbxo11, the gene mutated in the Jeff otitis media mouse mutant.|
Tateossian, H; Hardisty-Hughes, RE; Morse, S; Romero, MR; Hilton, H; Dean, C; Brown, SD
PathoGenetics 2 5 2009
Jeff is a dominant mouse mutant displaying chronic otitis media. The gene underlying Jeff is Fbxo11, a member of the large F-box family, which are specificity factors for the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Jeff homozygotes die shortly after birth displaying a number of developmental abnormalities including cleft palate and eyes open at birth. TGF-beta signalling is involved in a number of epithelial developmental processes and we have investigated the impact of the Jeff mutation on the expression of this pathway.Phospho-Smad2 (pSmad2) is significantly upregulated in epithelia of Jeff homozygotes. Moreover, there was a significant increase in nuclear localization of pSmad2 in contrast to wild type. Mice heterozygous for both Jeff and Smad2 mutations recapitulate many of the features of the Jeff homozygous phenotype. However, tissue immunoprecipitations failed to detect any interaction between Fbxo11 and Smad2. Fbxo11 is known to neddylate p53, a co-factor of pSmad2, but we did not find any evidence of genetic interactions between Jeff and p53 mutants. Nevertheless, p53 levels are substantially reduced in Jeff mice suggesting that Fbxo11 plays a role in stabilizing p53.Overall, our findings support a model whereby Fbxo11, possibly via stabilization of p53, is required to limit the accumulation of pSmad2 in the nucleus of epithelial cells of palatal shelves, eyelids and airways of the lungs. The finding that Fbxo11 impacts upon TGF-beta signalling has important implications for our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms of middle ear inflammatory disease.
|Matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (MMP-9) coordinates and effects epithelial regeneration|
Mohan, R., et al
J Biol Chem, 277:2065-72 (2002) 2002
|Smad4/DPC4 and Smad3 mediate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling through direct binding to a novel TGF-beta-responsive element in the human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter.|
Song, C Z, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 273: 29287-90 (1998) 1998
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of cytokines mediates multiple biological effects by regulating the expression of target genes. The Smad family proteins function as intracellular signal transducers downstream of the receptors to transmit the TGF-beta signal from cell membrane to nucleus. The mechanisms by which Smads mediate transcriptional activation of target genes is largely unknown. Here we report the identification of a novel TGF-beta-responsive element in the human type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor promoter that is required for mediating strong transcriptional activation of this gene by TGF-beta. Smad3 and Smad4 are incorporated into a TGF-beta-inducible complex formed on this element following TGF-beta stimulation of human hepatoma cells. Both Smad3 and Smad4 bind directly to this TGF-beta-responsive element through their conserved MH1 domains. These results indicate that Smad3 and Smad4 mediate TGF-beta signaling by directly interacting with a specific response element in a physiological target gene.