|An ITAM in a nonenveloped virus regulates activation of NF-κB, induction of beta interferon, and viral spread.|
Stebbing, RE; Irvin, SC; Rivera-Serrano, EE; Boehme, KW; Ikizler, M; Yoder, JA; Dermody, TS; Sherry, B
Journal of virology
Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) are signaling domains located within the cytoplasmic tails of many transmembrane receptors and associated adaptor proteins that mediate immune cell activation. ITAMs also have been identified in the cytoplasmic tails of some enveloped virus glycoproteins. Here, we identified ITAM sequences in three mammalian reovirus proteins: μ2, σ2, and λ2. We demonstrate for the first time that μ2 is phosphorylated, contains a functional ITAM, and activates NF-κB. Specifically, μ2 and μNS recruit the ITAM-signaling intermediate Syk to cytoplasmic viral factories and this recruitment requires the μ2 ITAM. Moreover, both the μ2 ITAM and Syk are required for maximal μ2 activation of NF-κB. A mutant virus lacking the μ2 ITAM activates NF-κB less efficiently and induces lower levels of the downstream antiviral cytokine beta interferon (IFN-β) than does wild-type virus despite similar replication. Notably, the consequences of these μ2 ITAM effects are cell type specific. In fibroblasts where NF-κB is required for reovirus-induced apoptosis, the μ2 ITAM is advantageous for viral spread and enhances viral fitness. Conversely, in cardiac myocytes where the IFN response is critical for antiviral protection and NF-κB is not required for apoptosis, the μ2 ITAM stimulates cellular defense mechanisms and diminishes viral fitness. Together, these results suggest that the cell type-specific effect of the μ2 ITAM on viral spread reflects the cell type-specific effects of NF-κB and IFN-β. This first demonstration of a functional ITAM in a nonenveloped virus presents a new mechanism for viral ITAM-mediated signaling with likely organ-specific consequences in the host.
|Differential requirement of ZAP-70 for CD2-mediated activation pathways of mature human T cells.|
E Meinl, D Lengenfelder, N Blank, R Pirzer, L Barata, C Hivroz, E Meinl, D Lengenfelder, N Blank, R Pirzer, L Barata, C Hivroz
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
This study addresses the role of the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 in CD2-mediated T cell activation. Patients lacking ZAP-70 have few mature CD8+ T cells and high numbers of CD4+ T cells that are nonfunctional upon TCR triggering. Such a patient with a homozygous deletion in the zap-70 gene that resulted in the complete absence of ZAP-70 protein expression has been identified. Expression of the tyrosine kinases Lck, Fyn, and Syk was normal. The patient's T cells were activated with two different pairs of mitogenic mAbs. CD2-induced phosphorylation of the zeta-chain and influx of Ca2+ was defective in the ZAP-70-deficient T cells, whereas CD2-induced phosphorylation of several other proteins, including Syk, was not affected. CD2-induced proliferation as well as production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma was abrogated in ZAP-70-deficient T cells, whereas PMA plus ionomycin induced normal activation of these cells. Together, this study shows that CD2-activation triggers ZAP-70-dependent and -independent pathways. Deletion of ZAP-70 affected CD2- and CD3-mediated proliferation and cytokine production in a similar way, suggesting that one of the different CD2 pathways converges with a CD3 pathway at or upstream of the activation of ZAP-70.
|Syk tyrosine kinase required for mouse viability and B-cell development.|
Cheng, A M, et al.
Nature, 378: 303-6 (1995)
The Syk cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase has two amino-terminal SH2 domains and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain. Syk, and its close relative ZAP-70, are apparently pivotal in coupling antigen- and Fc-receptors to downstream signalling events. Syk associates with activated Fc receptors, the T cell receptor complex and the B-cell antigen-receptor complex (BCR) in immature and mature B lymphocytes. On receptor activation, the tandem SH2 domains of Syk bind dual phosphotyrosine sites in the conserved ITAM motifs of receptor signalling chains, such as the immunoglobulin alpha and beta-chains of the BCR, leading to Syk activation. Here we have investigated Syk function in vivo by generating a mouse strain with a targeted mutation in the syk gene. Homozygous syk mutants suffered severe haemorrhaging as embryos and died perinatally, indicating that Syk has a critical role in maintaining vascular integrity or in wound healing during embryogenesis. Analysis of syk-/- lymphoid cells showed that the syk mutation impaired the differentiation of B-lineage cells, apparently by disrupting signalling from the pre-BCR complex and thereby preventing the clonal expansion, and further maturation, of pre-B cells.