|The Modified JiuWei QiangHuo Decoction Alleviated Severe Lung Injury Induced by H1N1 Influenza Virus by Regulating the NF- κ B Pathway in Mice.|
Chen, L; Yan, X; Yan, Q; Fan, J; Huang, H; Shi, X; Han, L; Han, T; Zhu, H
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
A new approach to treat infections of highly pathogenic influenza virus is to inhibit excessive innate immune response. JiuWei QiangHuo decoction has been used for centuries for the treatment of pulmonary disorders in China. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of the modified JiuWei QiangHuo (MJWQH) decoction in the treatment of influenza A (H1N1) virus-induced severe pneumonia in mice. The results showed that MJWQH significantly increased the survival rate of H1N1-infected mice and suppressed the production of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, MCP-1, RANTES, and IFN-α on day 4 after infection. Moreover, oral administration of MJWQH efficiently inhibited virus replication and alleviated the severity of lung injuries. The results also showed that MJWQH may have potential therapeutic effect on severe lung injury induced by H1N1 virus by regulating the NF-κB pathway. Our study suggested that MJWQH might be an alternative therapy for the treatment of viral pneumonia.
|Advanced oxidation protein products induce cardiomyocyte death via Nox2/Rac1/superoxide-dependent TRAF3IP2/JNK signaling.|
Valente, AJ; Yoshida, T; Clark, RA; Delafontaine, P; Siebenlist, U; Chandrasekar, B
Free radical biology & medicine
Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are formed during chronic oxidative stress as a result of reactions between plasma proteins and chlorinated oxidants. Their levels are elevated during various cardiovascular diseases. Because elevated AOPPs serve as independent risk factors for ischemic heart disease, and cardiomyocyte death is a hallmark of ischemic heart disease, we hypothesized that AOPPs will induce cardiomyocyte death. AOPP-modified mouse serum albumin (AOPP-MSA) induced significant death of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes that was attenuated by knockdown of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, but not CD36. Notably, TRAF3-interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2; also known as CIKS or Act1) knockdown blunted AOPP-induced apoptosis. AOPP-MSA stimulated Nox2/Rac1-dependent superoxide generation, TRAF3IP2 expression, and TRAF3IP2-dependent JNK activation. The superoxide anion generating xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and hydrogen peroxide both induced TRAF3IP2 expression. Further, AOPP-MSA induced mitochondrial Bax translocation and release of cytochrome c into cytoplasm. Moreover, AOPP-MSA suppressed antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression. These effects were reversed by TRAF3IP2 knockdown or forced expression of mutant JNK. Similar to its effects in neonatal cardiomyocytes, AOPP-MSA induced adult cardiomyocyte death in part via TRAF3IP2. These results demonstrate for the first time that AOPPs induce cardiomyocyte death via Nox2/Rac1/superoxide-dependent TRAF3IP2/JNK activation in vitro and suggest that AOPPs may contribute to myocardial injury in vivo. Thus TRAF3IP2 may represent a potential therapeutic target in ischemic heart disease.
|The TRAF family of signal transducers mediates NF-kappaB activation by the TRANCE receptor.|
Wong, B R, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 273: 28355-9 (1998)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), a member of the TNF family expressed on activated T-cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and osteoblasts, regulates the function of dendritic cells (DC) and osteoclasts. The TRANCE receptor (TRANCE-R), recently identified as receptor activator of NF-kappabeta (RANK), activates NF-kappaB, a transcription factor critical in the differentiation and activation of those cells. In this report we identify the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of signal transducers as important components of TRANCE-R-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggested potential interactions between the cytoplasmic tail of TRANCE-R with TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF5, and TRAF6. Dominant negative forms of TRAF2, TRAF5, and TRAF6 and an endogenous inhibitor of TRAF2, TRAF-interacting protein (TRIP), substantially inhibited TRANCE-R-mediated NF-kappaB activation, suggesting a role of TRAFs in regulating DC and osteoclast function. Overexpression of combinations of TRAF dominant negative proteins revealed competition between TRAF proteins for the TRANCE-R and the possibility of a TRAF-independent NF-kappaB pathway. Analysis of TRANCE-R deletion mutants suggested that the TRAF2 and TRAF5 interaction sites were restricted to the C-terminal 93 amino acids (C-region). TRAF6 also complexed to the C-region in addition to several regions N-terminal to the TRAF2 and TRAF5 association sites. Furthermore, transfection experiments with TRANCE-R deletion mutants revealed that multiple regions of the TRANCE-R can mediate NF-kappaB activation.