|The emerin-binding transcription factor Lmo7 is regulated by association with p130Cas at focal adhesions.|
Wozniak, Michele A, et al.
PeerJ, 1: e134 (2013)
Loss of function mutations in the nuclear inner membrane protein, emerin, cause X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD). X-EDMD is characterized by contractures of major tendons, skeletal muscle weakening and wasting, and cardiac conduction system defects. The transcription factor Lmo7 regulates muscle- and heart-relevant genes and is inhibited by binding to emerin, suggesting Lmo7 misregulation contributes to EDMD disease. Lmo7 associates with cell adhesions and shuttles between the plasma membrane and nucleus, but the regulation and biological consequences of this dual localization were unknown. We report endogenous Lmo7 also associates with focal adhesions in cells, and both co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with p130Cas, a key signaling component of focal adhesions. Lmo7 nuclear localization and transcriptional activity increased significantly in p130Cas-null MEFs, suggesting Lmo7 is negatively regulated by p130Cas-dependent association with focal adhesions. These results support EDMD models in which Lmo7 is a downstream mediator of integrin-dependent signaling that allows tendon cells and muscles to adapt to and withstand mechanical stress.
|Regulation of focal adhesions by flightless i involves inhibition of paxillin phosphorylation via a Rac1-dependent pathway.|
Kopecki, Z; O'Neill, GM; Arkell, RM; Cowin, AJ
The Journal of investigative dermatology
Flightless I (Flii) is an actin-remodeling protein that influences diverse processes including cell migration and gene transcription and links signal transduction with cytoskeletal regulation. Here, we show that Flii modulation of focal adhesions and filamentous actin stress fibers is Rac1-dependent. Using primary skin fibroblasts from Flii overexpressing (Flii(Tg/Tg)), wild-type, and Flii deficient (Flii(+/-)) mice, we show that elevated expression of Flii increases stress fiber formation by impaired focal adhesion turnover and enhanced formation of fibrillar adhesions. Conversely, Flii knockdown increases the percentage of focal complex positive cells. We further show that a functional effect of Flii at both the cellular level and in in vivo mouse wounds is through inhibiting paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation and suppression of signaling proteins Src and p130Cas, both of which regulate adhesion signaling pathways. Flii is upregulated in response to wounding, and overexpression of Flii inhibits paxillin activity and reduces adhesion signaling by modulating the activity of the Rho family GTPases. Overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 GTPase restores the spreading ability of Flii(Tg/Tg) fibroblasts and may explain the reduced adhesion, migration, and proliferation observed in Flii(Tg/Tg) mice and their impaired wound healing, a process dependent on effective cellular motility and adhesion.
|Hsp72 interacts with paxillin and facilitates the reassembly of focal adhesions during recovery from ATP depletion.|
Mao, H; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Ruchalski, KL; Yu, X; Schwartz, JH; Borkan, SC
The Journal of biological chemistry
The cytoprotective effect of heat stress proteins on epithelial cell detachment, an important cause of acute, ischemic renal failure, was examined after ATP depletion by evaluating focal adhesion complex (FAC) integrity. The intracellular distribution of FAC proteins (paxillin, talin, and vinculin) was assessed by immunohistochemistry before, during, and after exposure of renal epithelial cells to metabolic inhibitors. The resulting ATP depletion caused reversible re-distribution of all three proteins from focal adhesions to the cytosol. Paxillin, a key adaptor protein, was selected as a surrogate marker for FAC integrity in subsequent studies. Prior heat stress increased hsp72, a molecular chaperone, in both the Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble protein fractions. Compared with ATP depleted control, heat stress significantly decreased paxillin and hsp72 shift from the Triton X-100 soluble to the insoluble protein fraction (an established marker of denaturation and aggregation); increased paxillin-hsp72 interaction detected by co-immunoprecipitation; enhanced paxillin extractability from Triton X-100-insoluble precipitates, increased the reformation of focal adhesions, and improved cell attachment (p less than 0.05). To determine whether hsp72 mediates protection afforded by heat stress, cells were infected with adenovirus containing human hsp72 or empty vector. Hsp72 overexpression increased its interaction with paxillin and improved focal adhesion reformation during recovery, mimicking the protective effects of heat stress. These data suggest that hsp72 facilitates the reassembly of focal adhesions and improves cell attachment by reducing paxillin denaturation and increasing its re-solubilization after ATP depletion.
|HSP72 inhibits apoptosis-inducing factor release in ATP-depleted renal epithelial cells.|
Ruchalski, K; Mao, H; Singh, SK; Wang, Y; Mosser, DD; Li, F; Schwartz, JH; Borkan, SC
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
Inhibition of the mitochondrial release and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) by heat stress protein (HSP)72 may ameliorate apoptosis in renal epithelial cells exposed to a metabolic inhibitor. To evaluate this hypothesis, cells were transiently exposed to 5 mM sodium cyanide in the absence of medium glucose, a maneuver known to induce apoptosis. ATP depletion for 1-2 h resulted in the progressive accumulation of mitochondrial AIF in the cytosol of samples obtained by selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane with digitonin. During recovery from ATP depletion, time-dependent nuclear AIF accumulation (but not cytochrome c, an F0F1 ATP synthase subunit, or talin) was observed in isolated nuclei. Nuclear AIF accumulation was associated with peripheral chromatin condensation and DNA degradation. Prior heat stress (HS) significantly reduced AIF leakage into the cytosol, decreased nuclear accumulation of AIF, and inhibited DNA degradation. HS also increased the interaction between AIF and HSP72 detected by immunoprecipitation. In ATP depleted cells, selective overexpression of human HSP72 reduced the leakage of mitochondrial AIF in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.997). This study suggests that mitochondrial membrane injury and subsequent AIF release contribute to nuclear injury and apoptosis in ATP-depleted renal cells. HSP72, an antiapoptotic protein, inhibits cell injury in part by preventing mitochondrial AIF release and perhaps by decreasing its nuclear accumulation.