|A rapid interference between glucocorticoids and cAMP-activated signaling in hypothalamic neurons prevents binding of pCREB and GR at the CRE-like and composite GRE sites of TRH gene promoter.|
DÃaz-Gallardo MY, Cote-VÃ©lez A, Charli JL, Joseph-Bravo P
Journal of neuroendocrinology
Abstract Glucocorticoids or cAMP increase, within minutes, TRH transcription in hypothalamic primary cultures but this effect is prevented if cells are simultaneously incubated with both drugs. Rat TRH promoter contains a CRE site at -101/-94 bp and a composite GRE element (cGRE) at -218/-197 bp. Nuclear extracts of hypothalamic cells incubated with 8Br-cAMP or dexamethasone, and not their combination, bind to oligonucleotides containing the CRE or cGRE sequences. Adjacent to CRE are Sp/KrÃ¼ppel response elements, and flanking the GRE half site, two AP1 binding sites. This work seeks to identify the hypothalamic transcription factors that bind to these sites. We verified that glucocorticoid effects were not mimicked by corticosterone-BSA. Footprinting and ChIP assays were used to examine the interaction of cAMP- and glucocorticoid-mediated regulation of TRH transcription at the CRE and cGRE regions of TRH promoter. Nuclear extracts from hypothalamic cells incubated for 1h with cAMP or glucocorticoids protected CRE. GRE half site was recognized by nuclear proteins from cells stimulated with glucocorticoids while the adjacent AP-1 sites, with cAMP or phorbol esters. Protection of CRE or cGRE was lost if cells were coincubated with dexamethasone and 8Br-cAMP. ChIP assays revealed phospho-CREB, c-Jun, Sp1, c-Fos and GR antibodies bound the TRH promoter of cells treated with cAMP or glucocorticoids; anti:RNA-polymerase II immunoprecipitated TRH promoter in similar proportion as anti:pCREB or anti:GR. Recruitment by anti:pCREB, anti:Sp1 or anti:GR was lost when cells were exposed simultaneously to 8Br-cAMP and glucocorticoids. The data show that while pCREB and Sp1 bind to CRE-2, or GR to cGRE of the TRH promoter, the mutual antagonism between cAMP and glucocorticoid signaling, which prevent their binding to TRH promoter, could serve as a mechanism by which glucocorticoids rapidly suppress cAMP and noradrenaline-stimulated TRH transcription.
|Maintenance of the thyroid axis during diet-induced obesity in rodents is controlled at the central level.|
Perello, M; Cakir, I; Cyr, NE; Romero, A; Stuart, RC; Chiappini, F; Hollenberg, AN; Nillni, EA
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is a major contributor in maintaining energy expenditure and body weight, and the adipocyte hormone leptin regulates this axis by increasing TRH levels in the fed state. Leptin stimulates TRH directly in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN; direct pathway) and indirectly by regulating proopiomelnocortin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC; indirect pathway). Whereas the indirect pathway is fully functional in lean animals, it is inactive during diet-induced obesity (DIO) because of the establishment of leptin resistance. Despite this, the HPT axis activity in obese humans and rodents remains within the normal levels or slightly higher. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) by which the HPT axis is still active despite leptin resistance. With a combination of using the Sprague-Dawley rat physiological model and the Zuker rat that bears a mutation in the leptin receptor, we were able to demonstrate that under DIO conditions the HPT axis is regulated at the central level, but only through the direct pathway of leptin action on TRH neurons. Deiodinase enzymes, which are present in many tissues and responsible for converting thyroid hormones, were not statistically different between lean and DIO animals. These data suggest that the increase in T(4/3) seen in obese animals is due mostly to central leptin action. We also found that T(3) feedback inhibition on the prepro-TRH gene is controlled partially by leptin-induced pSTAT3 signaling via the TRH promoter. This interactive relationship between T(3) and pSTAT3 signaling appears essential to maintain the HPT axis at normal levels in conditions such as obesity.
|Thyroid-hormone-dependent negative regulation of thyrotropin beta gene by thyroid hormone receptors: study with a new experimental system using CV1 cells.|
Keiko Nakano, Akio Matsushita, Shigekazu Sasaki, Hiroko Misawa, Kozo Nishiyama, Yumiko Kashiwabara, Hirotoshi Nakamura
The Biochemical journal
The molecular mechanism involved in the liganded thyroid hormone receptor suppression of the TSHbeta (thyroid-stimulating hormone beta, or thyrotropin beta) gene transcription is undetermined. One of the main reasons is the limitation of useful cell lines for the experiments. We have developed an assay system using non-pituitary CV1 cells and studied the negative regulation of the TSHbeta gene. In CV1 cells, the TSHbeta-CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter was stimulated by Pit1 and GATA2 and suppressed by T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine)-bound thyroid hormone receptor. The suppression was dependent on the amounts of T3 and the receptor. Unliganded receptor did not stimulate TSHbeta activity, suggesting that the receptor itself is not an activator. Analyses using various receptor mutants revealed that the intact DNA-binding domain is crucial to the TSHbeta gene suppression. Co-activators and co-repressors are not necessarily essential, but are required for the full suppression of the TSHbeta gene. Among the three receptor isoforms, beta2 exhibited the strongest inhibition and its protein level was the most predominant in a thyrotroph cell line, TalphaT1, in Western blotting. The dominant-negative effects of various receptor mutants measured on the TSHbeta-CAT reporter were not simple mirror images of those in the positive regulation under physiological T3 concentration.Full Text Article
|Isoform-specific thyroid hormone receptor antibodies detect multiple thyroid hormone receptors in rat and human pituitaries.|
Yen, P M, et al.
Endocrinology, 130: 1539-46 (1992)
There are three known isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) in the rat: TR alpha-1, TR beta-1, and TR beta-2. The TR alpha-1 and TR beta-1 mRNAs are found in many tissues, whereas TR beta-2 mRNA is detected only in the pituitary gland. Thus far, TR alpha-1 and TR beta-1 mRNAs have been found in humans and are highly homologous to their counterparts in rats; however, TR beta-2 mRNA has not yet been demonstrated in humans. To examine the expression of these TRs at the protein level, we have raised isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies in female New Zealand White rabbits against the rat TRs and c-erbA alpha-2, a carboxy-terminal variant of TR alpha-1 that does not bind thyroid hormone. The rabbits were immunized with synthetic peptides that contained the following amino acid sequences: TR alpha-common-(10-31), c-erbA alpha-2-(428-442), TR beta-1-(73-93), and TR beta-2-(86-101, 113-133). All immune sera could bind specifically to their respective immunizing peptides on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as immunoprecipitate specifically in vitro translated rat and human TRs. Anti-TR beta-1 and anti-TR alpha-common antibodies could immunoprecipitate TR beta-1 or TR alpha-1, respectively, in transfected COS-7 cells. We also immunostained normal adult rat and human pituitary glands. Each isoform-specific antibody could immunostain almost all of the anterior pituitary cells, suggesting that TR alpha-1, TR beta-1, TR beta-2, and c-erbA alpha-2 are most likely expressed in all anterior pituitary cell types in rats and humans. The staining of rat pituitary glands by the anti-TR beta-2 antibodies demonstrates for the first time that TR beta-2 is expressed as a protein in pituitary cells. Furthermore, the staining of human pituitary glands by the anti-TR beta-2 antibodies suggests that there is a human homolog of the rat pituitary-specific TR beta-2 that shares similar epitopes with the rat TR beta-2. In summary, we have prepared isoform-specific antibodies against TRs that can recognize in vitro translated, transiently transfected, and in situ rat and human pituitary TRs. These antibodies will be useful in examining tissue- and cell type-specific expression of rat and human TRs at the protein level.