Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal IgG in buffer containing 0.014 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, 0.175 M NaCl, 0.07% sodium azide, and 30% glycerol. Liquid at -20°C.|
|Application||Use Anti-Tip60 Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody) validated in WB to detect Tip60 also known as HIV-1 Tat interactive protein, K(lysine) acetyltransferase 5, K-acetyltransferase.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Tip60 - 2464580||2464580|
|Anti-Tip60 - 1962661||1962661|
|Anti-Tip60 - 19905||19905|
|Anti-Tip60 - 2020916||2020916|
|Anti-Tip60 - 2087933||2087933|
|Anti-Tip60 - 2210403||2210403|
|Anti-Tip60 - 2299572||2299572|
|Anti-Tip60 - 25012||25012|
|Anti-Tip60 - 25012||25012|
|Anti-Tip60 - DAM1503359||DAM1503359|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Modulation of chromatin remodelling induced by the freshwater cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin in human intestinal caco-2 cells.|
Huguet, A; Hatton, A; Villot, R; Quenault, H; Blanchard, Y; Fessard, V
PloS one 9 e99121 2014
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that has been recognised as an emerging potential public health risk. Although CYN toxicity has been demonstrated, the mechanisms involved have not been fully characterised. To identify some key pathways related to this toxicity, we studied the transcriptomic profile of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to a sub-toxic concentration of CYN (1.6 µM for 24hrs) using a non-targeted approach. CYN was shown to modulate different biological functions which were related to growth arrest (with down-regulation of cdkn1a and uhrf1 genes), and DNA recombination and repair (with up-regulation of aptx and pms2 genes). Our main results reported an increased expression of some histone-modifying enzymes (histone acetyl and methyltransferases MYST1, KAT5 and EHMT2) involved in chromatin remodelling, which is essential for initiating transcription. We also detected greater levels of acetylated histone H2A (Lys5) and dimethylated histone H3 (Lys4), two products of these enzymes. In conclusion, CYN overexpressed proteins involved in DNA damage repair and transcription, including modifications of nucleosomal histones. Our results highlighted some new cell processes induced by CYN.
|Zinc finger protein 668 interacts with Tip60 to promote H2AX acetylation after DNA damage.|
Hu, R; Wang, E; Peng, G; Dai, H; Lin, SY
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 2033-41 2013
Many tumor suppressors play an important role in the DNA damage pathway. Zinc finger protein 668 (ZNF668) has recently been identified as one of the potential tumor suppressors in breast cancer, but its function in DNA damage response is unknown. Herein, we report that ZNF668 is a regulator of DNA repair. ZNF668 knockdown impairs cell survival after DNA damage without affecting the ATM/ATR DNA-damage signaling cascade. However, recruitment of repair proteins to DNA lesions is decreased. In response to IR, ZNF668 knockdown reduces Tip60-H2AX interaction and impairs IR-induced histone H2AX hyperacetylation, thus impairing chromatin relaxation. Impaired chromatin relaxation causes decreased recruitment of repair proteins to DNA lesions, defective homologous recombination (HR) repair and impaired cell survival after IR. In addition, ZNF668 knockdown decreased RPA phosphorylation and its recruitment to DNA damage foci in response to UV. In both IR and UV damage responses, chromatin relaxation counteracted the impaired loading of repair proteins and DNA repair defects in ZNF668-deficient U2OS cells, indicating that impeded chromatin accessibility at sites of DNA breaks caused the DNA repair defects observed in the absence of ZNF668. Our findings suggest that ZNF668 is a key molecule that links chromatin relaxation with DNA damage response in DNA repair control.
|Characterisation of a Tip60 specific inhibitor, NU9056, in prostate cancer.|
Coffey, K; Blackburn, TJ; Cook, S; Golding, BT; Griffin, RJ; Hardcastle, IR; Hewitt, L; Huberman, K; McNeill, HV; Newell, DR; Roche, C; Ryan-Munden, CA; Watson, A; Robson, CN
PloS one 7 e45539 2012
Tip60 (KAT5) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT enzyme) involved in multiple cellular processes including transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair and cell signalling. In prostate cancer, aggressive cases over-express Tip60 which functions as an androgen receptor co-activator via direct acetylation of lysine residues within the KLKK motif of the receptor hinge region. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise a Tip60 acetylase inhibitor. High-throughput screening revealed an isothiazole that inhibited both Tip60 and p300 HAT activity. This substance (initially identified as 4-methyl-5-bromoisothiazole) and other isothiazoles were synthesised and assayed against Tip60. Although an authentic sample of 4-methyl-5-bromoisothiazole was inactive against Tip60, in an in vitro HAT assay, 1,2-bis(isothiazol-5-yl)disulfane (NU9056) was identified as a relatively potent inhibitor (IC(50) 2 µM). Cellular activity was confirmed by analysis of acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in a prostate cancer cell line model. NU9056 treatment inhibited cellular proliferation in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines (50% growth inhibition, 8-27 µM) and induced apoptosis via activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Also, decreased androgen receptor, prostate specific antigen, p53 and p21 protein levels were demonstrated in response to treatment with NU9056. Furthermore, pre-treatment with NU9056 inhibited both ATM phosphorylation and Tip60 stabilization in response to ionising radiation. Based on the activity of NU9056 and the specificity of the compound towards Tip60 relative to other HAT enzymes, these chemical biology studies have identified Tip60 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.
|The transcriptional specificity of NF-κB dimers is coded within the κB DNA response elements.|
Wang, VY; Huang, W; Asagiri, M; Spann, N; Hoffmann, A; Glass, C; Ghosh, G
Cell reports 2 824-39 2012
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) regulates gene expression by binding to specific DNA elements, known collectively as κB sites, that are contained within the promoters/enhancers of target genes. We found that the identity of the central base pair (bp) of κB sites profoundly affects the transcriptional activity of NF-κB dimers. RelA dimers prefer an A/T bp at this position for optimal transcriptional activation (A/T-centric) and discriminate against G/C-centric κB sites. The p52 homodimer, in contrast, activates transcription from G/C-centric κB sites in complex with Bcl3 but represses transcription from the A/T-centric sites. The p52:Bcl3 complex binds to these two classes of κB sites in distinct modes, permitting the recruitment of coactivator, corepressor, or both coactivator and corepressor complexes in promoters that contain G/C-, A/T-, or both G/C- and A/T-centric sites. Therefore, through sensing of bp differences within κB sites, NF-κB dimers modulate biological programs by activating, repressing, and altering the expression of effector genes.
|Tip60-mediated acetylation activates transcription independent apoptotic activity of Abl.|
Jiang, Z; Kamath, R; Jin, S; Balasubramani, M; Pandita, TK; Rajasekaran, B
Molecular cancer 10 88 2011
The proto-oncogene, c-Abl encodes a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine kinase that critically governs the cell death response induced by genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation and cisplatin. The catalytic function of Abl, which is essential for executing DNA damage response (DDR), is normally tightly regulated but upregulated several folds upon IR exposure due to ATM-mediated phosphorylation on S465. However, the mechanism/s leading to activation of Abl's apoptotic activity is currently unknown.We investigated the role of acetyl modification in regulating apoptotic activity of Abl and the results showed that DNA strand break-inducing agents, ionizing radiation and bleomycin induced Abl acetylation. Using mass spectrophotometry and site-specific acetyl antibody, we identified Abl K921, located in the DNA binding domain, and conforming to one of the lysine residue in the consensus acetylation motif (KXXK--X3-5--SGS) is acetylated following DNA damage. We further observed that the S465 phosphorylated Abl is acetyl modified during DNA damage. Signifying the modification, cells expressing the non acetylatable K921R mutant displayed attenuated apoptosis compared to wild-type in response to IR or bleomycin treatment. WT-Abl induced apoptosis irrespective of new protein synthesis. Furthermore, upon γ-irradiation K921R-Abl displayed reduced chromatin binding compared to wild type. Finally, loss of Abl K921 acetylation in Tip60-knocked down cells and co-precipitation of Abl with Tip60 in DNA damaged cells identified Tip60 as an Abl acetylase.Collective data showed that DNA damage-induced K921 Abl acetylation, mediated by Tip60, stimulates transcriptional-independent apoptotic activity and chromatin-associative property thereby defining a new regulatory mechanism governing Abl's DDR function.
|Perturbation of BRD4 protein function by BRD4-NUT protein abrogates cellular differentiation in NUT midline carcinoma.|
Yan, J; Diaz, J; Jiao, J; Wang, R; You, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 27663-75 2011
NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) belongs to a class of highly lethal and poorly differentiated epithelial cancers arising mainly in human midline organs. NMC is caused by the chromosome translocation-mediated fusion of the NUT (nuclear protein in testis) gene on chromosome 15 to a few other genes, most frequently the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19. The mechanism by which the BRD4-NUT fusion product blocks NMC cellular differentiation and contributes to oncogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we show that BRD4-NUT and BRD4 colocalize in discrete nuclear foci that are hyperacetylated but transcriptionally inactive. BRD4-NUT recruits histone acetyltransferases to induce histone hyperacetylation in these chromatin foci, which provide docking sites for accumulation of additional BRD4 and associated P-TEFB (positive transcription elongation factor b) complexes in the transcriptionally inactive BRD4-NUT foci. These molecular events lead to repression of a BRD4·P-TEFB downstream target gene c-fos, a component of activator protein 1 (AP-1), that directly regulates epithelial differentiation. Knockdown of BRD4-NUT in NMC cells disperses the transcriptionally inactive chromatin foci and releases the transcriptional activators to stimulate c-fos expression, leading to restoration of cellular differentiation. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which the BRD4-NUT oncogene perturbs BRD4 functions to block cellular differentiation and to contribute to the oncogenic progression in the highly aggressive NMC.
|Histone H2A.Z is essential for estrogen receptor signaling.|
Nicolas Gévry, Sara Hardy, Pierre-Etienne Jacques, Liette Laflamme, Amy Svotelis, François Robert, Luc Gaudreau, Nicolas Gévry, Sara Hardy, Pierre-Etienne Jacques, Liette Laflamme, Amy Svotelis, François Robert, Luc Gaudreau, Nicolas Gévry, Sara Hardy, Pierre-Etienne Jacques, Liette Laflamme, Amy Svotelis, François Robert, Luc Gaudreau
Genes development 23 1522-33 2009
Incorporation of H2A.Z into the chromatin of inactive promoters has been shown to poise genes for their expression. Here we provide strong evidence that H2A.Z is incorporated into the promoter regions of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) target genes only upon gene induction, and that, in a cyclic pattern. Moreover, members of the human H2A.Z-depositing complex, p400, also follow the same gene recruitment kinetics as H2A.Z. Importantly, cellular depletion of H2A.Z or p400 leads to a severe defect in estrogen signaling, including loss of estrogen-specific cell proliferation. We find that incorporation of H2A.Z within TFF1 promoter chromatin allows nucleosomes to adopt preferential positions along the DNA translational axis. Finally, we provide evidence that H2A.Z is essential to allow estrogen-responsive enhancer function. Taken together, our results provide strong mechanistic insight into how H2A.Z regulates ERalpha-mediated gene expression and provide a novel link between H2A.Z-p400 and ERalpha-dependent gene regulation and enhancer function.Full Text Article
|Phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 11 establishes a novel chromatin mark for transcriptional regulation.|
Metzger, E; Yin, N; Wissmann, M; Kunowska, N; Fischer, K; Friedrichs, N; Patnaik, D; Higgins, JM; Potier, N; Scheidtmann, KH; Buettner, R; Schüle, R
Nature cell biology 10 53-60 2008
Posttranslational modifications of histones such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we show that protein-kinase-C-related kinase 1 (PRK1) phosphorylates histone H3 at threonine 11 (H3T11) upon ligand-dependent recruitment to androgen receptor target genes. PRK1 is pivotal to androgen receptor function because PRK1 knockdown or inhibition impedes androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Blocking PRK1 function abrogates androgen-induced H3T11 phosphorylation and inhibits androgen-induced demethylation of histone H3. Moreover, serine-5-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II is no longer observed at androgen receptor target promoters. Phosphorylation of H3T11 by PRK1 accelerates demethylation by the Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain-containing protein JMJD2C. Thus, phosphorylation of H3T11 by PRK1 establishes a novel chromatin mark for gene activation, identifying PRK1 as a gatekeeper of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Importantly, levels of PRK1 and phosphorylated H3T11 correlate with Gleason scores of prostate carcinomas. Finally, inhibition of PRK1 blocks proliferation of androgen receptor-induced tumour cell proliferation, making PRK1 a promising therapeutic target.Full Text Article
|Tip60 functions as a potential corepressor of KLF4 in regulation of HDC promoter activity.|
Ai, W; Zheng, H; Yang, X; Liu, Y; Wang, TC
Nucleic acids research 35 6137-49 2007
KLF4 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Previously we have demonstrated that KLF4 represses HDC promoter activity in a gastric cell line through both an upstream Sp1 binding GC box and downstream gastrin responsive elements. However, the mechanism by which KLF4 inhibits HDC promoter is not well defined. In the current study, by using yeast two-hybrid screening, Tip60 was identified as a KLF4 interacting protein. Further coimmunoprecipitation and functional reporter assays support the interaction between these two proteins. In addition, Tip60 and HDAC7, previously shown to interact with each other and repress transcription, inhibited HDC promoter activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Consistently, knock down of Tip60 or HDAC7 gene expression by specific shRNA increased endogenous HDC mRNA level. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that HDAC7 was pulled down by KLF4 and Tip60, suggesting that these three proteins form a repressive complex. Further chromatin immuno-precipitation indicated that all three proteins associated with HDC promoter. Two-hour gastrin treatment, known to activate HDC gene expression, significantly decreased the association of KLF4, Tip60 and HDAC7 with HDC promoter, suggesting that gastrin activates HDC gene expression at least partly by decreasing the formation of KLF4/Tip60/HDAC7 repressive complexes at the HDC promoter.
|Distinct mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes with opposing roles in cell-cycle control.|
Norman G Nagl,Xiaomei Wang,Antonia Patsialou,Michael Van Scoy,Elizabeth Moran
The EMBO journal 26 2007
The mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is becoming increasingly recognized for its role in tumor suppression, based on its ability to regulate accessibility of proliferation-associated genes to transcription factors. However, understanding the biological role of the complex is complicated because the same complex seemingly plays both positive and negative roles in gene expression. Work described here reveals that a choice between two independently encoded, closely related variants of a major subunit of the ARID protein family determines whether the SWI/SNF complex forms further associations with activator versus repressor complexes. The choice distinguishes assemblies with opposite effects on cell-cycle activity. The specific complexes control access of factors such as E2F1, Tip60, and HDAC1/2/3 to the promoters of various cell-cycle-specific genes, with c-Myc emerging as a particularly critical target.Full Text Article