Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, B||WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Application||This Anti-β-Tubulin Antibody, clone AA2 is validated for use in WB for the detection of β-Tubulin.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-#946;-Tubulin, clone AA2 - 1988744||1988744|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone AA2 - 2032287||2032287|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone AA2 - 2207268||2207268|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone AA2 - DAM1557475||DAM1557475|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone AA2 - DAM1601826||DAM1601826|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone AA2 - DAM1798679||DAM1798679|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone AA2 - JBC1889930||JBC1889930|
|Anti-b-Tubulin, clone AA2 (mouse monoclonal IgG1) - DAM1411328||DAM1411328|
|Anti-b-Tubulin, clone AA2 - DAM1501797||DAM1501797|
|Anti-beta;-Tubulin, clone AA2 - 22237||22237|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Phytometabolite Dehydroleucodine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Human Astrocytoma Cells through p73/p53 Regulation.|
Bailon-Moscoso, N; González-Arévalo, G; Velásquez-Rojas, G; Malagon, O; Vidari, G; Zentella-Dehesa, A; Ratovitski, EA; Ostrosky-Wegman, P
PloS one 10 e0136527 2015
Accumulating evidence supports the idea that secondary metabolites obtained from medicinal plants (phytometabolites) may be important contributors in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce the occurrence or recurrence of cancer. Our study focused on Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene found in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this study, we showed that DhL displayed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on the human cerebral astrocytoma D384 cell line. With lactone isolated from Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd, a medicinal plant from Ecuador, we found that DhL induced cell death in D384 cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis and DNA damage. We further found that the cell death resulted in the increased expression of CDKN1A and BAX proteins. A marked induction of the levels of total TP73 and phosphorylated TP53, TP73, and γ-H2AX proteins was observed in D384 cells exposed to DhL, but no increase in total TP53 levels was detected. Overall these studies demonstrated the marked effect of DhL on the diminished survival of human astrocytoma cells through the induced expression of TP73 and phosphorylation of TP73 and TP53, suggesting their key roles in the tumor cell response to DhL treatment.
|Cumulus cells accelerate oocyte aging by releasing soluble Fas ligand in mice.|
Zhu, J; Zhang, J; Li, H; Wang, TY; Zhang, CX; Luo, MJ; Tan, JH
Scientific reports 5 8683 2015
Although previous studies have suggested that cumulus cells (CCs) accelerate oocyte aging by secreting soluble and heat-sensitive paracrine factors, the factors involved are not well characterized. Because Fas-mediated apoptosis represents a major pathway in induction of apoptosis in various cells, we proposed that CCs facilitate oocyte aging by releasing soluble Fas ligand (sFasL). In this study, we reported that when the aging of freshly ovulated mouse oocytes were studied in vitro, both the apoptotic rates of CCs and the amount of CCs produced sFasL increased significantly with the culture time. We found that oocytes expressed stable levels of Fas receptors up to 24 h of in vitro aging. Moreover, culture of cumulus-denuded oocytes in CCs-conditioned CZB medium (CM), in CZB supplemented with recombinant sFasL, or in CM containing sFasL neutralizing antibodies all showed that sFasL impaired the developmental potential of the oocytes whereas facilitating activation and fragmentation of aging oocytes. Furthermore, CCs from the FasL-defective gld mice did not accelerate oocyte aging due to the lack of functional FasL. In conclusion, we propose that CCs surrounding aging oocytes released sFasL in an apoptosis-related manner, and the released sFasL accelerated oocyte aging by binding to Fas receptors.
|SIRT7 inactivation reverses metastatic phenotypes in epithelial and mesenchymal tumors.|
Malik, S; Villanova, L; Tanaka, S; Aonuma, M; Roy, N; Berber, E; Pollack, JR; Michishita-Kioi, E; Chua, KF
Scientific reports 5 9841 2015
Metastasis is responsible for over 90% of cancer-associated mortality. In epithelial carcinomas, a key process in metastatic progression is the epigenetic reprogramming of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like (EMT) change towards invasive cellular phenotypes. In non-epithelial cancers, different mechanisms must underlie metastatic change, but relatively little is known about the factors involved. Here, we identify the chromatin regulatory Sirtuin factor SIRT7 as a key regulator of metastatic phenotypes in both epithelial and mesenchymal cancer cells. In epithelial prostate carcinomas, high SIRT7 levels are associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes, metastatic disease, and poor patient prognosis, and depletion of SIRT7 can reprogram these cells to a less aggressive phenotype. Interestingly, SIRT7 is also important for maintaining the invasiveness and metastatic potential of non-epithelial sarcoma cells. Moreover, SIRT7 inactivation dramatically suppresses cancer cell metastasis in vivo, independent of changes in primary tumor growth. Mechanistically, we also uncover a novel link between SIRT7 and its family member SIRT1, providing the first demonstration of direct interaction and functional interplay between two mammalian sirtuins. Together with previous work, our findings highlight the broad role of SIRT7 in maintaining the metastatic cellular phenotype in diverse cancers.
|SIRT1 Interacts with and Deacetylates ATP6V1B2 in Mature Adipocytes.|
Kim, SY; Zhang, Q; Brunmeir, R; Han, W; Xu, F
PloS one 10 e0133448 2015
SIRT1 plays a key role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in mammals by directly modulating the activities of various transcription factors and metabolic enzymes through lysine deacetylation. White adipose tissue plays a key role in lipid storage and metabolism. To identify novel molecular targets of SIRT1 in fat cells, we used a non-biased proteomic approach. We identified a number of proteins whose acetylation status was significantly affected by SIRT1 modulator treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Among them, ATP6V1B2, a subunit of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase, was further shown to be associated with SIRT1 by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, SIRT1 deacetylates ATP6V1B2 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our study demonstrates that ATP6V1B2 is a molecular target of SIRT1 in fat cells and the role of SIRT1 and ATP6V1B2 acetylation in the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase function warrants further investigation.
|SMYD3 links lysine methylation of MAP3K2 to Ras-driven cancer.|
Mazur, PK; Reynoird, N; Khatri, P; Jansen, PW; Wilkinson, AW; Liu, S; Barbash, O; Van Aller, GS; Huddleston, M; Dhanak, D; Tummino, PJ; Kruger, RG; Garcia, BA; Butte, AJ; Vermeulen, M; Sage, J; Gozani, O
Nature 510 283-7 2014
Deregulation of lysine methylation signalling has emerged as a common aetiological factor in cancer pathogenesis, with inhibitors of several histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) being developed as chemotherapeutics. The largely cytoplasmic KMT SMYD3 (SET and MYND domain containing protein 3) is overexpressed in numerous human tumours. However, the molecular mechanism by which SMYD3 regulates cancer pathways and its relationship to tumorigenesis in vivo are largely unknown. Here we show that methylation of MAP3K2 by SMYD3 increases MAP kinase signalling and promotes the formation of Ras-driven carcinomas. Using mouse models for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma, we found that abrogating SMYD3 catalytic activity inhibits tumour development in response to oncogenic Ras. We used protein array technology to identify the MAP3K2 kinase as a target of SMYD3. In cancer cell lines, SMYD3-mediated methylation of MAP3K2 at lysine 260 potentiates activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling module and SMYD3 depletion synergizes with a MEK inhibitor to block Ras-driven tumorigenesis. Finally, the PP2A phosphatase complex, a key negative regulator of the MAP kinase pathway, binds to MAP3K2 and this interaction is blocked by methylation. Together, our results elucidate a new role for lysine methylation in integrating cytoplasmic kinase-signalling cascades and establish a pivotal role for SMYD3 in the regulation of oncogenic Ras signalling.
|Cyclin D1-Cdk4 controls glucose metabolism independently of cell cycle progression.|
Lee, Y; Dominy, JE; Choi, YJ; Jurczak, M; Tolliday, N; Camporez, JP; Chim, H; Lim, JH; Ruan, HB; Yang, X; Vazquez, F; Sicinski, P; Shulman, GI; Puigserver, P
Nature 510 547-51 2014
Insulin constitutes a principal evolutionarily conserved hormonal axis for maintaining glucose homeostasis; dysregulation of this axis causes diabetes. PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α) links insulin signalling to the expression of glucose and lipid metabolic genes. The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 (general control non-repressed protein 5) acetylates PGC-1α and suppresses its transcriptional activity, whereas sirtuin 1 deacetylates and activates PGC-1α. Although insulin is a mitogenic signal in proliferative cells, whether components of the cell cycle machinery contribute to its metabolic action is poorly understood. Here we report that in mice insulin activates cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), which, in turn, increases GCN5 acetyltransferase activity and suppresses hepatic glucose production independently of cell cycle progression. Through a cell-based high-throughput chemical screen, we identify a Cdk4 inhibitor that potently decreases PGC-1α acetylation. Insulin/GSK-3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta) signalling induces cyclin D1 protein stability by sequestering cyclin D1 in the nucleus. In parallel, dietary amino acids increase hepatic cyclin D1 messenger RNA transcripts. Activated cyclin D1-Cdk4 kinase phosphorylates and activates GCN5, which then acetylates and inhibits PGC-1α activity on gluconeogenic genes. Loss of hepatic cyclin D1 results in increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycaemia. In diabetic models, cyclin D1-Cdk4 is chronically elevated and refractory to fasting/feeding transitions; nevertheless further activation of this kinase normalizes glycaemia. Our findings show that insulin uses components of the cell cycle machinery in post-mitotic cells to control glucose homeostasis independently of cell division.
|Neurotrophins regulate ApoER2 proteolysis through activation of the Trk signaling pathway.|
Larios, JA; Jausoro, I; Benitez, ML; Bronfman, FC; Marzolo, MP
BMC neuroscience 15 108 2014
ApoER2 and the neurotrophin receptors Trk and p75(NTR) are expressed in the CNS and regulate key functional aspects of neurons, including development, survival, and neuronal function. It is known that both ApoER2 and p75(NTR) are processed by metalloproteinases, followed by regulated intramembrane proteolysis. TrkA activation by nerve growth factor (NGF) increases the proteolytic processing of p75(NTR) mediated by ADAM17. Reelin induces the sheeding of ApoER2 ectodomain depending on metalloproteinase activity. However, it is not known if there is a common regulation mechanism for processing these receptors.We found that TrkA activation by NGF in PC12 cells induced ApoER2 processing, which was dependent on TrkA activation and metalloproteinases. NGF-induced ApoER2 proteolysis was independent of mitogen activated protein kinase activity and of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activity. In contrast, the basal proteolysis of ApoER2 increased when both kinases were pharmacologically inhibited. The ApoER2 ligand reelin regulated the proteolytic processing of its own receptor but not of p75(NTR). Finally, in primary cortical neurons, which express both ApoER2 and TrkB, we found that the proteolysis of ApoER2 was also regulated by brain-derived growth factor (BDNF).Our results highlight a novel relationship between neurotrophins and the reelin-ApoER2 system, suggesting that these two pathways might be linked to regulate brain development, neuronal survival, and some pathological conditions.
|Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.|
Yamada, Mitsutoshi, et al.
Nature, (2014) 2014
The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.
|Proteomic analysis of the SIRT6 interactome: novel links to genome maintenance and cellular stress signaling.|
Simeoni, F; Tasselli, L; Tanaka, S; Villanova, L; Hayashi, M; Kubota, K; Isono, F; Garcia, BA; Michishita-Kioi, E; Chua, KF
Scientific reports 3 3085 2013
The chromatin regulatory factor SIRT6 plays pivotal roles in metabolism, tumor suppression, and aging biology. Despite the fundamental roles of SIRT6 in physiology and disease, only a handful of molecular and functional interactions of SIRT6 have been reported. Here, we characterize the SIRT6 interactome and identify 80+ novel SIRT6-interacting proteins. The discovery of these SIRT6-associations considerably expands knowledge of the SIRT6 interaction network, and suggests previously unknown functional interactions of SIRT6 in fundamental cellular processes. These include chromatin remodeling, mitotic chromosome segregation, protein homeostasis, and transcriptional elongation. Extended analysis of the SIRT6 interaction with G3BP1, a master stress response factor, uncovers an unexpected role and mechanism of SIRT6 in regulating stress granule assembly and cellular stress resistance.
|Proteomics analysis of human obesity reveals the epigenetic factor HDAC4 as a potential target for obesity.|
Abu-Farha, M; Tiss, A; Abubaker, J; Khadir, A; Al-Ghimlas, F; Al-Khairi, I; Baturcam, E; Cherian, P; Elkum, N; Hammad, M; John, J; Kavalakatt, S; Warsame, S; Behbehani, K; Dermime, S; Dehbi, M
PloS one 8 e75342 2013
Sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake are prominent contributors to obesity; a major risk factors for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these chronic conditions is of relevant importance as it might lead to the identification of novel anti-obesity targets. The purpose of the current study is to investigate differentially expressed proteins between lean and obese subjects through a shot-gun quantitative proteomics approach using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) extracts as well as potential modulation of those proteins by physical exercise. Using this approach, a total of 47 proteins showed at least 1.5 fold change between lean and obese subjects. In obese, the proteomic profiling before and after 3 months of physical exercise showed differential expression of 38 proteins. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) was among the proteins that were upregulated in obese subjects and then decreased by physical exercise. Conversely, the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) was downregulated in obese subjects and then induced by physical exercise. The proteomic data was further validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both PBMCs and adipose tissue. We also showed that HDAC4 levels correlated positively with maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max) but negatively with body mass index, percent body fat, and the inflammatory chemokine RANTES. In functional assays, our data indicated that ectopic expression of HDAC4 significantly impaired TNF-α-dependent activation of NF-κB, establishing thus a link between HDAC4 and regulation of the immune system. Together, the expression pattern of HDAC4 in obese subjects before and after physical exercise, its correlation with various physical, clinical and metabolic parameters along with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB are suggestive of a protective role of HDAC4 against obesity. HDAC4 could therefore represent a potential therapeutic target for the control and management of obesity and presumably insulin resistance.