Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Eu||ICC, IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 2424729||2424729|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 2462852||2462852|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 18439||18439|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 1971846||1971846|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 2019744||2019744|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 2073116||2073116|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 21626||21626|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 2189949||2189949|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 22854||22854|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys14) - 2377183||2377183|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The Drosophila Su(var)3-7 gene is required for oogenesis and female fertility, genetically interacts with piwi and aubergine, but impacts only weakly transposon silencing.|
Basquin, D; Spierer, A; Begeot, F; Koryakov, DE; Todeschini, AL; Ronsseray, S; Vieira, C; Spierer, P; Delattre, M
PloS one 9 e96802 2014
Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3-7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3-7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3-7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3-7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3-7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3-7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3-7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3-7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3-7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing.
|Neural stem cell differentiation is dictated by distinct actions of nuclear receptor corepressors and histone deacetylases.|
Castelo-Branco, G; Lilja, T; Wallenborg, K; Falcão, AM; Marques, SC; Gracias, A; Solum, D; Paap, R; Walfridsson, J; Teixeira, AI; Rosenfeld, MG; Jepsen, K; Hermanson, O
Stem cell reports 3 502-15 2014
Signaling factors including retinoic acid (RA) and thyroid hormone (T3) promote neuronal, oligodendrocyte, and astrocyte differentiation of cortical neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the functional specificity of transcriptional repressor checkpoints controlling these differentiation programs remains unclear. Here, we show by genome-wide analysis that histone deacetylase (HDAC)2 and HDAC3 show overlapping and distinct promoter occupancy at neuronal and oligodendrocyte-related genes in NSCs. The absence of HDAC3, but not HDAC2, initiated a neuronal differentiation pathway in NSCs. The ablation of the corepressor NCOR or HDAC2, in conjunction with T3 treatment, resulted in increased expression of oligodendrocyte genes, revealing a direct HDAC2-mediated repression of Sox8 and Sox10 expression. Interestingly, Sox10 was required also for maintaining the more differentiated state by repression of stem cell programming factors such as Sox2 and Sox9. Distinct and nonredundant actions of NCORs and HDACs are thus critical for control of lineage progression and differentiation programs in neural progenitors.
|Lysine acetyltransferase GCN5b interacts with AP2 factors and is required for Toxoplasma gondii proliferation.|
Wang, J; Dixon, SE; Ting, LM; Liu, TK; Jeffers, V; Croken, MM; Calloway, M; Cannella, D; Hakimi, MA; Kim, K; Sullivan, WJ
PLoS pathogens 10 e1003830 2014
Histone acetylation has been linked to developmental changes in gene expression and is a validated drug target of apicomplexan parasites, but little is known about the roles of individual histone modifying enzymes and how they are recruited to target genes. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (phylum Apicomplexa) is unusual among invertebrates in possessing two GCN5-family lysine acetyltransferases (KATs). While GCN5a is required for gene expression in response to alkaline stress, this KAT is dispensable for parasite proliferation in normal culture conditions. In contrast, GCN5b cannot be disrupted, suggesting it is essential for Toxoplasma viability. To further explore the function of GCN5b, we generated clonal parasites expressing an inducible HA-tagged dominant-negative form of GCN5b containing a point mutation that ablates enzymatic activity (E703G). Stabilization of this dominant-negative GCN5b was mediated through ligand-binding to a destabilization domain (dd) fused to the protein. Induced accumulation of the ddHAGCN5b(E703G) protein led to a rapid arrest in parasite replication. Growth arrest was accompanied by a decrease in histone H3 acetylation at specific lysine residues as well as reduced expression of GCN5b target genes in GCN5b(E703G) parasites, which were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip). Proteomics studies revealed that GCN5b interacts with AP2-domain proteins, apicomplexan plant-like transcription factors, as well as a "core complex" that includes the co-activator ADA2-A, TFIID subunits, LEO1 polymerase-associated factor (Paf1) subunit, and RRM proteins. The dominant-negative phenotype of ddHAGCN5b(E703G) parasites, considered with the proteomics and ChIP-chip data, indicate that GCN5b plays a central role in transcriptional and chromatin remodeling complexes. We conclude that GCN5b has a non-redundant and indispensable role in regulating gene expression required during the Toxoplasma lytic cycle.
|Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration.|
Goldowitz, D; Lussier, AA; Boyle, JK; Wong, K; Lattimer, SL; Dubose, C; Lu, L; Kobor, MS; Hamre, KM
Frontiers in genetics 5 203 2014
While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses). Tissue was collected 7 h after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol-induced neurodegeneration.
|Elucidating combinatorial histone modifications and crosstalks by coupling histone-modifying enzyme with biotin ligase activity.|
Lau, PN; Cheung, P
Nucleic acids research 41 e49 2013
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) often form complex patterns of combinations and cooperate to specify downstream biological processes. In order to systemically analyse combinatorial PTMs and crosstalks among histone PTMs, we have developed a novel nucleosome purification method called Biotinylation-assisted Isolation of CO-modified Nucleosomes (BICON). This technique is based on physical coupling of the enzymatic activity of a histone-modifying enzyme with in vivo biotinylation by the biotin ligase BirA, and using streptavidin to purify the co-modified nucleosomes. Analysing the nucleosomes isolated by BICON allows the identification of PTM combinations that are enriched on the modified nucleosomes and function together within the nucleosome context. We used this new approach to study MSK1-mediated H3 phosphorylation and found that MSK1 not only directly phosphorylated H3, but also induced hyperacetylation of both histone H3 and H4 within the nucleosome. Moreover, we identified a novel crosstalk pathway between H3 phosphorylation and H4 acetylation on K12. Involvement of these acetyl marks in MSK1-mediated transcription was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, thus validating the biological relevance of the BICON results. These studies serve as proof-of-principle for this new technical approach, and demonstrate that BICON can be further adapted to study PTMs and crosstalks associated with other histone-modifying enzymes.
|Histone deacetylase inhibitors facilitate partner preference formation in female prairie voles.|
Wang, H; Duclot, F; Liu, Y; Wang, Z; Kabbaj, M
Nature neuroscience 16 919-24 2013
In the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), mating induces enduring pair-bonds that are initiated by partner preference formation and regulated by a variety of neurotransmitters, including oxytocin, vasopressin and dopamine. We examined potential epigenetic mechanisms mediating pair-bond regulation and found that the histone deacetylase inhibitors sodium butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA) facilitated partner preference formation in female prairie voles in the absence of mating. This was associated with a specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor (OTR, oxtr) and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR, avpr1a) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), through an increase in histone acetylation at their respective promoters. Furthermore, TSA-facilitated partner preference was prevented by OTR or V1aR blockade in the NAcc. Notably, mating-induced partner preference triggered the same epigenetic regulation of oxtr and avpr1a gene promoters as TSA. These observations indicate that TSA and mating facilitate partner preference through epigenetic events, providing, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct evidence for epigenetic regulation of pair-bonding.
|The histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate modulates acquisition and extinction of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.|
Raybuck, JD; McCleery, EJ; Cunningham, CL; Wood, MA; Lattal, KM
Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 106 109-16 2013
Despite decades of research on treatments for cocaine dependence, relapse rates following many behavioral and drug-based therapies remain high. This may be in part because cocaine-associated cues and contexts can invoke powerful drug cravings years after quitting. Recent studies suggest that drugs that promote cognitive function can enhance the formation of memories involving cocaine and other substances. One target of these drugs is facilitating histone acetylation to promote learning by increasing gene transcription that supports memory formation. Here, we investigate the effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBut) on cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in C57BL/6 mice. After establishing a graded dose-response curve (2, 5, & 20 mg/kg) for cocaine-induced CPP, we examined the effects of different doses of NaBut (0, 0.3, 0.6, & 1.2 g/kg) on conditioning, extinction, and post-extinction reconditioning of CPP. A high dose of NaBut (1.2 g/kg) enhanced initial acquisition of cocaine CPP, but there were no effects of NaBut on reconditioning of extinguished CPP. Effects of NaBut on extinction were more complex, with a low-dose (0.3 g/kg) facilitating extinction and a high dose (1.2 g/kg) weakening extinction evident by preference at a retention test. These findings suggest that HDAC inhibition may have dose dependent effects on different components of cocaine CPP, with implications for (1) involvement of histone acetylation in context-drug learning, (2) interpretation of acute and chronic drug effects, and (3) the targeting of different types of learning in therapeutic application of HDAC inhibitors.
|MYCN and HDAC2 cooperate to repress miR-183 signaling in neuroblastoma.|
Lodrini, M; Oehme, I; Schroeder, C; Milde, T; Schier, MC; Kopp-Schneider, A; Schulte, JH; Fischer, M; De Preter, K; Pattyn, F; Castoldi, M; Muckenthaler, MU; Kulozik, AE; Westermann, F; Witt, O; Deubzer, HE
Nucleic acids research 41 6018-33 2013
MYCN is a master regulator controlling many processes necessary for tumor cell survival. Here, we unravel a microRNA network that causes tumor suppressive effects in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. In profiling studies, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor treatment most strongly induced miR-183. Enforced miR-183 expression triggered apoptosis, and inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation in vitro and xenograft growth in mice. Furthermore, the mechanism of miR-183 induction was found to contribute to the cell death phenotype induced by HDAC inhibitors. Experiments to identify the HDAC(s) involved in miR-183 transcriptional regulation showed that HDAC2 depletion induced miR-183. HDAC2 overexpression reduced miR-183 levels and counteracted the induction caused by HDAC2 depletion or HDAC inhibitor treatment. MYCN was found to recruit HDAC2 in the same complexes to the miR-183 promoter, and HDAC2 depletion enhanced promoter-associated histone H4 pan-acetylation, suggesting epigenetic changes preceded transcriptional activation. These data reveal miR-183 tumor suppressive properties in neuroblastoma that are jointly repressed by MYCN and HDAC2, and suggest a novel way to bypass MYCN function.
|Functional characterization and gene expression profiling of Drosophila melanogaster short dADA2b isoform-containing dSAGA complexes.|
Pankotai, T; Zsindely, N; Vamos, EE; Komonyi, O; Bodai, L; Boros, IM
BMC genomics 14 44 2013
ADA2 proteins, together with ADA3, SGF29 and GCN5 form the acetyltransferase module of GNAT-type histone acetyltransferase complexes. ADA2b is present in the SAGA complex, which plays roles in various chromatin-related processes via histone H3 modifications and by other mechanisms.In this report we present findings showing that during Drosophila melanogaster development two dADA2b isoforms (dADA2bS and dADA2bL) - which differ in their C-terminal domains - are expressed at various levels. Genetic complementation experiments indicate that dADA2bS alone can support development but cannot fully complement dAda2b mutations. In the presence of dADA2bS, the SAGA-specific histone H3 acetylation level is partially restored in dAda2b mutants. Comparison of whole transcriptome profiles of dAda2b null and dAda2bS transgene-carrier dAda2b null larvae indicates partial overlap between affected genes. mRNA levels corresponding to selected genes which are either up- or down-regulated in dAda2b mutants are altered by dADA2bS expression to different extents, ranging from complete restoration to wild type levels to no restoration at all. The short (dADA2bS) isoform of dADA2b seems to be more capable of restoring lost dSAGA functions that cause mRNA level up-regulation than those that lead to decreased mRNA levels.The data presented here are in accord with results of genetic complementation experiments, and support the hypothesis that different isoforms of dADA2b contribute to the functional variations of dSAGA multiprotein HAT complexes.
|Role of DNA methylation in the regulation of lipogenic glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 gene expression in the mouse neonatal liver.|
Ehara, T; Kamei, Y; Takahashi, M; Yuan, X; Kanai, S; Tamura, E; Tanaka, M; Yamazaki, T; Miura, S; Ezaki, O; Suganami, T; Okano, M; Ogawa, Y
Diabetes 61 2442-50 2012
The liver is a major organ of lipid metabolism, which is markedly changed in response to physiological nutritional demand; however, the regulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression in early life is largely unknown. In this study, we show that expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 (GPAT1; Gpam), a rate-limiting enzyme of triglyceride biosynthesis, is regulated in the mouse liver by DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of a diverse range of biological processes in mammals. In the neonatal liver, DNA methylation of the Gpam promoter, which is likely to be induced by Dnmt3b, inhibited recruitment of the lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), whereas in the adult, decreased DNA methylation resulted in active chromatin conformation, allowing recruitment of SREBP-1c. Maternal overnutrition causes decreased Gpam promoter methylation with increased GPAT1 expression and triglyceride content in the pup liver, suggesting that environmental factors such as nutritional conditions can affect DNA methylation in the liver. This study is the first detailed analysis of the DNA-methylation-dependent regulation of the triglyceride biosynthesis gene Gpam, thereby providing new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of metabolic genes and thus metabolic diseases.