Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB, ChIP, DB, FC, ChIP-seq||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide with 30% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 2135172||2135172|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 18740||18740|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 1973414||1973414|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 2111283||2111283|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 2178419||2178419|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 21897||21897|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 2193154||2193154|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 2279510||2279510|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 23997||23997|
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) - 2511087||2511087|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|A comprehensive epigenome map of Plasmodium falciparum reveals unique mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and identifies H3K36me2 as a global mark of gene suppression.|
Karmodiya, K; Pradhan, SJ; Joshi, B; Jangid, R; Reddy, PC; Galande, S
Epigenetics & chromatin 8 32 2015
Role of epigenetic mechanisms towards regulation of the complex life cycle/pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, has been poorly understood. To elucidate stage-specific epigenetic regulation, we performed genome-wide mapping of multiple histone modifications of P. falciparum. Further to understand the differences in transcription regulation in P. falciparum and its host, human, we compared their histone modification profiles.Our comprehensive comparative analysis suggests distinct mode of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasite by virtue of poised genes and differential histone modifications. Furthermore, analysis of histone modification profiles predicted 562 genes producing anti-sense RNAs and 335 genes having bidirectional promoter activity, which raises the intriguing possibility of RNA-mediated regulation of transcription in P. falciparum. Interestingly, we found that H3K36me2 acts as a global repressive mark and gene regulation is fine tuned by the ratio of activation marks to H3K36me2 in P. falciparum. This novel mechanism of gene regulation is supported by the fact that knockout of SET genes (responsible for H3K36 methylation) leads to up-regulation of genes with highest occupancy of H3K36me2 in wild-type P. falciparum. Moreover, virulence (var) genes are mostly poised and marked by a unique set of activation (H4ac) and repression (H3K9me3) marks, which are mutually exclusive to other Plasmodium housekeeping genes.Our study reveals unique plasticity in the epigenetic regulation in P. falciparum which can influence parasite virulence and pathogenicity. The observed differences in the histone code and transcriptional regulation in P. falciparum and its host will open new avenues for epigenetic drug development against malaria parasite.
|Deep sequencing and de novo assembly of the mouse oocyte transcriptome define the contribution of transcription to the DNA methylation landscape.|
Veselovska, L; Smallwood, SA; Saadeh, H; Stewart, KR; Krueger, F; Maupetit-Méhouas, S; Arnaud, P; Tomizawa, S; Andrews, S; Kelsey, G
Genome biology 16 209 2015
Previously, a role was demonstrated for transcription in the acquisition of DNA methylation at imprinted control regions in oocytes. Definition of the oocyte DNA methylome by whole genome approaches revealed that the majority of methylated CpG islands are intragenic and gene bodies are hypermethylated. Yet, the mechanisms by which transcription regulates DNA methylation in oocytes remain unclear. Here, we systematically test the link between transcription and the methylome.We perform deep RNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly at different stages of mouse oogenesis. This reveals thousands of novel non-annotated genes, as well as alternative promoters, for approximately 10 % of reference genes expressed in oocytes. In addition, a large fraction of novel promoters coincide with MaLR and ERVK transposable elements. Integration with our transcriptome assembly reveals that transcription correlates accurately with DNA methylation and accounts for approximately 85-90 % of the methylome. We generate a mouse model in which transcription across the Zac1/Plagl1 locus is abrogated in oocytes, resulting in failure of DNA methylation establishment at all CpGs of this locus. ChIP analysis in oocytes reveals H3K4me2 enrichment at the Zac1 imprinted control region when transcription is ablated, establishing a connection between transcription and chromatin remodeling at CpG islands by histone demethylases.By precisely defining the mouse oocyte transcriptome, this work not only highlights transcription as a cornerstone of DNA methylation establishment in female germ cells, but also provides an important resource for developmental biology research.
|Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer methylomes revealed differentially methylated and expressed breast cancer genes.|
Lin, IH; Chen, DT; Chang, YF; Lee, YL; Su, CH; Cheng, C; Tsai, YC; Ng, SC; Chen, HT; Lee, MC; Chen, HW; Suen, SH; Chen, YC; Liu, TT; Chang, CH; Hsu, MT
PloS one 10 e0118453 2015
Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation.
|Transcriptional regulation of the human TNFSF11 gene in T cells via a cell type-selective set of distal enhancers.|
Bishop, KA; Wang, X; Coy, HM; Meyer, MB; Gumperz, JE; Pike, JW
Journal of cellular biochemistry 116 320-30 2015
In addition to osteoblast lineage cells, the TNF-like factor receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is expressed in both B and T cells and may play a role in bone resorption. Rankl gene (Tnfsf11) expression in mouse T cells is mediated through multiple distal elements marked by increased transcription factor occupancy, histone tail acetylation, and RNA polymerase II recruitment. Little is known, however, of the regulation of human TNFSF11 in T cells. Accordingly, we examined the consequence of T cell activation on the expression of this factor both in Jurkat cells and in primary human T cells. We then explored the mechanism of this regulation by scanning over 400 kb of DNA surrounding the TNFSF11 locus for regulatory enhancers using ChIP-chip analysis. Histone H3/H4 acetylation enrichment identified putative regulatory regions located between -170 and -220 kb upstream of the human TNFSF11 TSS that we designated the human T cell control region (hTCCR). This region showed high sequence conservation with the mouse TCCR. Inhibition of MEK1/2 by U0126 resulted in decreased RANKL expression suggesting that stimulation through MEK1/2 was a prerequisite. ChIP-chip analysis also revealed that c-FOS was recruited to the hTCCR as well. Importantly, both the human TNFSF11 D5a/b (RLD5a/b) enhancer and segments of the hTCCR mediated robust inducible reporter activity following TCR activation. Finally, SNPs implicated in diseases characterized by dysregulated BMD co-localized to the hTCCR region. We conclude that the hTCCR region contains a cell-selective set of enhancers that plays an integral role in the transcriptional regulation of the TNFSF11 gene in human T cells.
|MAF1 represses CDKN1A through a Pol III-dependent mechanism.|
Lee, YL; Li, YC; Su, CH; Chiao, CH; Lin, IH; Hsu, MT
eLife 4 e06283 2015
MAF1 represses Pol III-mediated transcription by interfering with TFIIIB and Pol III. Herein, we found that MAF1 knockdown induced CDKN1A transcription and chromatin looping concurrently with Pol III recruitment. Simultaneous knockdown of MAF1 with Pol III or BRF1 (subunit of TFIIIB) diminished the activation and looping effect, which indicates that recruiting Pol III was required for activation of Pol II-mediated transcription and chromatin looping. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis after MAF1 knockdown indicated enhanced binding of Pol III and BRF1, as well as of CFP1, p300, and PCAF, which are factors that mediate active histone marks, along with the binding of TATA binding protein (TBP) and POLR2E to the CDKN1A promoter. Simultaneous knockdown with Pol III abolished these regulatory events. Similar results were obtained for GDF15. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which MAF1 and Pol III regulate the activity of a protein-coding gene transcribed by Pol II.
|Cerebellar oxidative DNA damage and altered DNA methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism and similarities with human post mortem cerebellum.|
Shpyleva, S; Ivanovsky, S; de Conti, A; Melnyk, S; Tryndyak, V; Beland, FA; James, SJ; Pogribny, IP
PloS one 9 e113712 2014
The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b). Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1) and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism.
|Dynamic remodeling of histone modifications in response to osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.|
Magraner-Pardo, L; Pelechano, V; Coloma, MD; Tordera, V
BMC genomics 15 247 2014
Specific histone modifications play important roles in chromatin functions; i.e., activation or repression of gene transcription. This participation must occur as a dynamic process. Nevertheless, most of the histone modification maps reported to date provide only static pictures that link certain modifications with active or silenced states. This study, however, focuses on the global histone modification variation that occurs in response to the transcriptional reprogramming produced by a physiological perturbation in yeast.We did a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis for eight specific histone modifications before and after saline stress. The most striking change was rapid acetylation loss in lysines 9 and 14 of H3 and in lysine 8 of H4, associated with gene repression. The genes activated by saline stress increased the acetylation levels at these same sites, but this acetylation process was quantitatively minor if compared to that of the deacetylation of repressed genes. The changes in the tri-methylation of lysines 4, 36 and 79 of H3 and the di-methylation of lysine 79 of H3 were slighter than those of acetylation. Furthermore, we produced new genome-wide maps for seven histone modifications, and we analyzed, for the first time in S. cerevisiae, the genome-wide profile of acetylation of lysine 8 of H4.This research reveals that the short-term changes observed in the post-stress methylation of histones are much more moderate than those of acetylation, and that the dynamics of the acetylation state of histones during activation or repression of transcription is a much quicker process than methylation.
|Comprehensive analysis of interacting proteins and genome-wide location studies of the Sas3-dependent NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex.|
Vicente-Muñoz, S; Romero, P; Magraner-Pardo, L; Martinez-Jimenez, CP; Tordera, V; Pamblanco, M
FEBS open bio 4 996-1006 2014
Histone acetylation affects several aspects of gene regulation, from chromatin remodelling to gene expression, by modulating the interplay between chromatin and key transcriptional regulators. The exact molecular mechanism underlying acetylation patterns and crosstalk with other epigenetic modifications requires further investigation. In budding yeast, these epigenetic markers are produced partly by histone acetyltransferase enzymes, which act as multi-protein complexes. The Sas3-dependent NuA3 complex has received less attention than other histone acetyltransferases (HAT), such as Gcn5-dependent complexes. Here, we report our analysis of Sas3p-interacting proteins using tandem affinity purification (TAP), coupled with mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed Pdp3p, a recently described component of NuA3, to be one of the most abundant Sas3p-interacting proteins. The PDP3 gene, was TAP-tagged and protein complex purification confirmed that Pdp3p co-purified with the NuA3 protein complex, histones, and several transcription-related and chromatin remodelling proteins. Our results also revealed that the protein complexes associated with Sas3p presented HAT activity even in the absence of Gcn5p and vice versa. We also provide evidence that Sas3p cannot substitute Gcn5p in acetylation of lysine 9 in histone H3 in vivo. Genome-wide occupancy of Sas3p using ChIP-on-chip tiled microarrays showed that Sas3p was located preferentially within the 5'-half of the coding regions of target genes, indicating its probable involvement in the transcriptional elongation process. Hence, this work further characterises the function and regulation of the NuA3 complex by identifying novel post-translational modifications in Pdp3p, additional Pdp3p-co-purifying chromatin regulatory proteins involved in chromatin-modifying complex dynamics and gene regulation, and a subset of genes whose transcriptional elongation is controlled by this complex.
|CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of Suv39H1 is involved in control of heterochromatin replication during cell cycle progression.|
Park, SH; Yu, SE; Chai, YG; Jang, YK
Nucleic Acids Res 42 6196-207 2014
Although several studies have suggested that the functions of heterochromatin regulators may be regulated by post-translational modifications during cell cycle progression, regulation of the histone methyltransferase Suv39H1 is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate a direct link between Suv39H1 phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. We show that CDK2 phosphorylates Suv39H1 at Ser391 and these phosphorylation levels oscillate during the cell cycle, peaking at S phase and maintained during S-G2-M phase. The CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of Suv39H1 at Ser391 results in preferential dissociation from chromatin. Furthermore, phosphorylation-mediated dissociation of Suv39H1 from chromatin causes an enhanced occupancy of JMJD2A histone demethylase on heterochromatin and alterations in inactive histone marks. Overexpression of phospho-mimic Suv39H1 induces early replication of heterochromatin, suggesting the importance of Suv39H1 phosphorylation in the replication of heterochromatin. Moreover, overexpression of phospho-defective Suv39H1 caused altered replication timing of heterochromatin and increases sensitivity to replication stress. Collectively, our data suggest that phosphorylation-mediated modulation of Suv39H1-chromatin association may be an initial step in heterochromatin replication.
|Histone acetyltransferase Enok regulates oocyte polarization by promoting expression of the actin nucleation factor spire.|
Huang, F; Paulson, A; Dutta, A; Venkatesh, S; Smolle, M; Abmayr, SM; Workman, JL
Genes & development 28 2750-63 2014
KAT6 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are highly conserved in eukaryotes and have been shown to play important roles in transcriptional regulation. Here, we demonstrate that the Drosophila KAT6 Enok acetylates histone H3 Lys 23 (H3K23) in vitro and in vivo. Mutants lacking functional Enok exhibited defects in the localization of Oskar (Osk) to the posterior end of the oocyte, resulting in loss of germline formation and abdominal segments in the embryo. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that spire (spir) and maelstrom (mael), both required for the posterior localization of Osk in the oocyte, were down-regulated in enok mutants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Enok is localized to and acetylates H3K23 at the spir and mael genes. Furthermore, Gal4-driven expression of spir in the germline can largely rescue the defective Osk localization in enok mutant ovaries. Our results suggest that the Enok-mediated H3K23 acetylation (H3K23Ac) promotes the expression of spir, providing a specific mechanism linking oocyte polarization to histone modification.
|Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) ChIP-Seq Analysis|
|White Paper - The Message in the Marks: Deciphering Cancer Epigenetics|