|Three-dimensional collagen I promotes gemcitabine resistance in vitro in pancreatic cancer cells through HMGA2-dependent histone acetyltransferase expression.|
Dangi-Garimella, S; Sahai, V; Ebine, K; Kumar, K; Munshi, HG
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with a pronounced collagen-rich stromal reaction that has been shown to contribute to chemo-resistance. We have previously shown that PDAC cells are resistant to gemcitabine chemotherapy in the collagen microenvironment because of increased expression of the chromatin remodeling protein high mobility group A2 (HMGA2). We have now found that human PDAC tumors display higher levels of histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation in fibrotic regions. We show that relative to cells grown on tissue culture plastic, PDAC cells grown in three-dimensional collagen gels demonstrate increased histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation, along with increased expression of p300, PCAF and GCN5 histone acetyltransferases (HATs). Knocking down HMGA2 attenuates the effect of collagen on histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and on collagen-induced p300, PCAF and GCN5 expression. We also show that human PDAC tumors with HMGA2 demonstrate increased histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation. Additionally, we show that cells in three-dimensional collagen gels demonstrate increased protection against gemcitabine. Significantly, down-regulation of HMGA2 or p300, PCAF and GCN5 HATs sensitizes the cells to gemcitabine in three-dimensional collagen. Overall, our results increase our understanding of how the collagen microenvironment contributes to chemo-resistance in vitro and identify HATs as potential therapeutic targets against this deadly cancer.
|Compensatory functions of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2 regulate transcription and apoptosis during mouse oocyte development.|
Ma, P; Pan, H; Montgomery, RL; Olson, EN; Schultz, RM
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dramatic changes in chromatin structure and histone modification occur during oocyte growth, as well as a global cessation of transcription. The role of histone modifications in these processes is poorly understood. We report the effect of conditionally deleting Hdac1 and Hdac2 on oocyte development. Deleting either gene has little or no effect on oocyte development, whereas deleting both genes results in follicle development arrest at the secondary follicle stage. This developmental arrest is accompanied by substantial perturbation of the transcriptome and a global reduction in transcription even though histone acetylation is markedly increased. There is no apparent change in histone repressive marks, but there is a pronounced decrease in histone H3K4 methylation, an activating mark. The decrease in H3K4 methylation is likely a result of increased expression of Kdm5b because RNAi-mediated targeting of Kdm5b in double-mutant oocytes results in an increase in H3K4 methylation. An increase in TRP53 acetylation also occurs in mutant oocytes and may contribute to the observed increased incidence of apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest seminal roles of acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins in oocyte development.
|The action mechanism of the Myc inhibitor termed Omomyc may give clues on how to target Myc for cancer therapy.|
Savino, M; Annibali, D; Carucci, N; Favuzzi, E; Cole, MD; Evan, GI; Soucek, L; Nasi, S
Recent evidence points to Myc--a multifaceted bHLHZip transcription factor deregulated in the majority of human cancers--as a priority target for therapy. How to target Myc is less clear, given its involvement in a variety of key functions in healthy cells. Here we report on the action mechanism of the Myc interfering molecule termed Omomyc, which demonstrated astounding therapeutic efficacy in transgenic mouse cancer models in vivo. Omomyc action is different from the one that can be obtained by gene knockout or RNA interference, approaches designed to block all functions of a gene product. This molecule--instead--appears to cause an edge-specific perturbation that destroys some protein interactions of the Myc node and keeps others intact, with the result of reshaping the Myc transcriptome. Omomyc selectively targets Myc protein interactions: it binds c- and N-Myc, Max and Miz-1, but does not bind Mad or select HLH proteins. Specifically, it prevents Myc binding to promoter E-boxes and transactivation of target genes while retaining Miz-1 dependent binding to promoters and transrepression. This is accompanied by broad epigenetic changes such as decreased acetylation and increased methylation at H3 lysine 9. In the presence of Omomyc, the Myc interactome is channeled to repression and its activity appears to switch from a pro-oncogenic to a tumor suppressive one. Given the extraordinary therapeutic impact of Omomyc in animal models, these data suggest that successfully targeting Myc for cancer therapy might require a similar twofold action, in order to prevent Myc/Max binding to E-boxes and, at the same time, keep repressing genes that would be repressed by Myc.