|Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A protein regulates CDKN2B transcription via interaction with MIZ-1.|
Bazot, Q; Deschamps, T; Tafforeau, L; Siouda, M; Leblanc, P; Harth-Hertle, ML; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V; Kempkes, B; Tommasino, M; Gruffat, H; Manet, E
Nucleic acids research
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3 family of protein is critical for the EBV-induced primary B-cell growth transformation process. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified 22 novel cellular partners of the EBNA3s. Most importantly, among the newly identified partners, five are known to play direct and important roles in transcriptional regulation. Of these, the Myc-interacting zinc finger protein-1 (MIZ-1) is a transcription factor initially characterized as a binding partner of MYC. MIZ-1 activates the transcription of a number of target genes including the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2B. Focusing on the EBNA3A/MIZ-1 interaction we demonstrate that binding occurs in EBV-infected cells expressing both proteins at endogenous physiological levels and that in the presence of EBNA3A, a significant fraction of MIZ-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, we show that a trimeric complex composed of a MIZ-1 recognition DNA element, MIZ-1 and EBNA3A can be formed, and that interaction of MIZ-1 with nucleophosmin (NPM), one of its coactivator, is prevented by EBNA3A. Finally, we show that, in the presence of EBNA3A, expression of the MIZ-1 target gene, CDKN2B, is downregulated and repressive H3K27 marks are established on its promoter region suggesting that EBNA3A directly counteracts the growth inhibitory action of MIZ-1.
|Structural basis of a histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase required for stem elongation in rice.|
Chen, Q; Chen, X; Wang, Q; Zhang, F; Lou, Z; Zhang, Q; Zhou, DX
Histone lysine methylation is an important epigenetic modification in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me), which can be in a mono-, di-, or trimethylated state, has been shown to play an important role in gene expression involved in plant developmental control and stress adaptation. However, the resetting mechanism of this epigenetic modification is not yet fully understood. In this work, we identified a JmjC domain-containing protein, JMJ703, as a histone lysine demethylase that specifically reverses all three forms of H3K4me in rice. Loss-of-function mutation of the gene affected stem elongation and plant growth, which may be related to increased expression of cytokinin oxidase genes in the mutant. Analysis of crystal structure of the catalytic core domain (c-JMJ703) of the protein revealed a general structural similarity with mammalian and yeast JMJD2 proteins that are H3K9 and H3K36 demethylases. However, several specific features were observed in the structure of c-JMJ703. Key residues that interact with cofactors Fe(II) and N-oxalylglycine and the methylated H3K4 substrate peptide were identified and were shown to be essential for the demethylase activity in vivo. Several key residues are specifically conserved in known H3K4 demethylases, suggesting that they may be involved in the specificity for H3K4 demethylation.
|A role for Set1/MLL-related components in epigenetic regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line.|
Li, T; Kelly, WG
The methylation of lysine 4 of Histone H3 (H3K4me) is an important component of epigenetic regulation. H3K4 methylation is a consequence of transcriptional activity, but also has been shown to contribute to "epigenetic memory"; i.e., it can provide a heritable landmark of previous transcriptional activity that may help promote or maintain such activity in subsequent cell descendants or lineages. A number of multi-protein complexes that control the addition of H3K4me have been described in several organisms. These Set1/MLL or COMPASS complexes often share a common subset of conserved proteins, with other components potentially contributing to tissue-specific or developmental regulation of the methyltransferase activity. Here we show that the normal maintenance of H3K4 di- and tri-methylation in the germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans is dependent on homologs of the Set1/MLL complex components WDR-5.1 and RBBP-5. Different methylation states that are each dependent on wdr-5.1 and rbbp-5 require different methyltransferases. In addition, different subsets of conserved Set1/MLL-like complex components appear to be required for H3K4 methylation in germ cells and somatic lineages at different developmental stages. In adult germ cells, mutations in wdr-5.1 or rbbp-5 dramatically affect both germ line stem cell (GSC) population size and proper germ cell development. RNAi knockdown of RNA Polymerase II does not significantly affect the wdr-5.1-dependent maintenance of H3K4 methylation in either early embryos or adult GSCs, suggesting that the mechanism is not obligately coupled to transcription in these cells. A separate, wdr-5.1-independent mode of H3K4 methylation correlates more directly with transcription in the adult germ line and in embryos. Our results indicate that H3K4 methylation in the germline is regulated by a combination of Set1/MLL component-dependent and -independent modes of epigenetic establishment and maintenance.
|Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 is highly conserved and correlates with transcriptionally active nuclei in Tetrahymena.|
Strahl, B D, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 96: 14967-72 (1999)
Studies into posttranslational modifications of histones, notably acetylation, have yielded important insights into the dynamic nature of chromatin structure and its fundamental role in gene expression. The roles of other covalent histone modifications remain poorly understood. To gain further insight into histone methylation, we investigated its occurrence and pattern of site utilization in Tetrahymena, yeast, and human HeLa cells. In Tetrahymena, transcriptionally active macronuclei, but not transcriptionally inert micronuclei, contain a robust histone methyltransferase activity that is highly selective for H3. Microsequence analyses of H3 from Tetrahymena, yeast, and HeLa cells indicate that lysine 4 is a highly conserved site of methylation, which to date, is the major site detected in Tetrahymena and yeast. These data document a nonrandom pattern of H3 methylation that does not overlap with known acetylation sites in this histone. In as much as H3 methylation at lysine 4 appears to be specific to macronuclei in Tetrahymena, we suggest that this modification pattern plays a facilitatory role in the transcription process in a manner that remains to be determined. Consistent with this possibility, H3 methylation in yeast occurs preferentially in a subpopulation of H3 that is preferentially acetylated.