Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB, ICC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Anti-hSNF2h Antibody, clone 1B9/D12 is a high quality Mouse Monoclonal Antibody for the detection of hSNF2h & has been validated in IP, WB, ICC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-hSNF2h, clone 1B9/D12 - 24347||24347|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Runx1 regulation of Pu.1 corepressor/coactivator exchange identifies specific molecular targets for leukemia differentiation therapy.|
Gu, X; Hu, Z; Ebrahem, Q; Crabb, JS; Mahfouz, RZ; Radivoyevitch, T; Crabb, JW; Saunthararajah, Y
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 14881-95 2014
Gene activation requires cooperative assembly of multiprotein transcription factor-coregulator complexes. Disruption to cooperative assemblage could underlie repression of tumor suppressor genes in leukemia cells. Mechanisms of cooperation and its disruption were therefore examined for PU.1 and RUNX1, transcription factors that cooperate to activate hematopoietic differentiation genes. PU.1 is highly expressed in leukemia cells, whereas RUNX1 is frequently inactivated by mutation or translocation. Thus, coregulator interactions of Pu.1 were examined by immunoprecipitation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry/Western blot in wild-type and Runx1-deficient hematopoietic cells. In wild-type cells, the NuAT and Baf families of coactivators coimmunoprecipitated with Pu.1. Runx1 deficiency produced a striking switch to Pu.1 interaction with the Dnmt1, Sin3A, Nurd, CoRest, and B-Wich corepressor families. Corepressors of the Polycomb family, which are frequently inactivated by mutation or deletion in myeloid leukemia, did not interact with Pu.1. The most significant gene ontology association of Runx1-Pu.1 co-bound genes was with macrophages, therefore, functional consequences of altered corepressor/coactivator exchange were examined at Mcsfr, a key macrophage differentiation gene. In chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, high level Pu.1 binding to the Mcsfr promoter was not decreased by Runx1 deficiency. However, the Pu.1-driven shift from histone repression to activation marks at this locus, and terminal macrophage differentiation, were substantially diminished. DNMT1 inhibition, but not Polycomb inhibition, in RUNX1-translocated leukemia cells induced terminal differentiation. Thus, RUNX1 and PU.1 cooperate to exchange corepressors for coactivators, and the specific corepressors recruited to PU.1 as a consequence of RUNX1 deficiency could be rational targets for leukemia differentiation therapy.
|Loss of WSTF results in spontaneous fluctuations of heterochromatin formation and resolution, combined with substantial changes to gene expression.|
Culver-Cochran, AE; Chadwick, BP
BMC genomics 14 740 2013
Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) is a multifaceted protein that is involved in several nuclear processes, including replication, transcription, and the DNA damage response. WSTF participates in a chromatin-remodeling complex with the ISWI ATPase, SNF2H, and is thought to contribute to the maintenance of heterochromatin, including at the human inactive X chromosome (Xi). WSTF is encoded by BAZ1B, and is one of twenty-eight genes that are hemizygously deleted in the genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS).To explore the function of WSTF, we performed zinc finger nuclease-assisted targeting of the BAZ1B gene and isolated several independent knockout clones in human cells. Our results show that, while heterochromatin at the Xi is unaltered, new inappropriate areas of heterochromatin spontaneously form and resolve throughout the nucleus, appearing as large DAPI-dense staining blocks, defined by histone H3 lysine-9 trimethylation and association of the proteins heterochromatin protein 1 and structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1. In three independent mutants, the expression of a large number of genes were impacted, both up and down, by WSTF loss.Given the inappropriate appearance of regions of heterochromatin in BAZ1B knockout cells, it is evident that WSTF performs a critical role in maintaining chromatin and transcriptional states, a property that is likely compromised by WSTF haploinsufficiency in WBS patients.
|The WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex transiently associates with the human inactive X chromosome during late S-phase prior to BRCA1 and γ-H2AX.|
Culver-Cochran, AE; Chadwick, BP
PloS one 7 e50023 2012
Replicating the genome prior to each somatic cell division not only requires precise duplication of the genetic information, but also accurately reestablishing the epigenetic signatures that instruct how the genetic material is to be interpreted in the daughter cells. The mammalian inactive X chromosome (Xi), which is faithfully inherited in a silent state in each daughter cell, provides an excellent model of epigenetic regulation. While much is known about the early stages of X chromosome inactivation, much less is understood with regards to retaining the Xi chromatin through somatic cell division. Here we report that the WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex (WICH) associates with the Xi during late S-phase as the Xi DNA is replicated. Elevated levels of WICH at the Xi is restricted to late S-phase and appears before BRCA1 and γ-H2A.X. The sequential appearance of WICH and BRCA1/γ-H2A.X implicate each as performing important but distinct roles in the maturation and maintenance of heterochromatin at the Xi.
|Chromatin remodeling complex NURF regulates thymocyte maturation.|
Landry, JW; Banerjee, S; Taylor, B; Aplan, PD; Singer, A; Wu, C
Genes & development 25 275-86 2011
The maturation of T cells requires signaling from both cytokine and T-cell receptors to gene targets in chromatin, but how chromatin architecture influences this process is largely unknown. Here we show that thymocyte maturation post-positive selection is dependent on the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF). Depletion of Bptf (bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor), the largest NURF subunit, in conditional mouse mutants results in developmental arrest beyond the CD4(+) CD8(int) stage without affecting cellular proliferation, cellular apoptosis, or coreceptor gene expression. In the Bptf mutant, specific subsets of genes important for thymocyte development show aberrant expression. We also observed defects in DNase I-hypersensitive chromatin structures at Egr1, a prototypical Bptf-dependent gene that is required for efficient thymocyte development. Moreover, chromatin binding of the sequence-specific factor Srf (serum response factor) to Egr1 regulatory sites is dependent on Bptf function. Physical interactions between NURF and Srf suggest a model in which Srf recruits NURF to facilitate transcription factor binding at Bptf-dependent genes. These findings provide evidence for causal connections between NURF, transcription factor occupancy, and gene regulation during thymocyte development.Full Text Article
|A protein complex containing the conserved Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase Swr1p deposits histone variant H2A.Z into euchromatin.|
Kobor, MS; Venkatasubrahmanyam, S; Meneghini, MD; Gin, JW; Jennings, JL; Link, AJ; Madhani, HD; Rine, J
PLoS biology 2 E131 2004
The conserved histone variant H2A.Z functions in euchromatin to antagonize the spread of heterochromatin. The mechanism by which histone H2A is replaced by H2A.Z in the nucleosome is unknown. We identified a complex containing 13 different polypeptides associated with a soluble pool of H2A.Z in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This complex was designated SWR1-Com in reference to the Swr1p subunit, a Swi2/Snf2-paralog. Swr1p and six other subunits were found only in SWR1-Com, whereas six other subunits were also found in the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase and/or the Ino80 chromatin remodeling complex. H2A.Z and SWR1 were essential for viability of cells lacking the EAF1 component of NuA4, pointing to a close functional connection between these two complexes. Strikingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of cells lacking Swr1p, the presumed ATPase of the complex, revealed a profound defect in the deposition of H2A.Z at euchromatic regions that flank the silent mating type cassette HMR and at 12 other chromosomal sites tested. Consistent with a specialized role for Swr1p in H2A.Z deposition, the majority of the genome-wide transcriptional defects seen in swr1Delta cells were also found in htz1Delta cells. These studies revealed a novel role for a member of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme family in determining the region-specific histone subunit composition of chromatin in vivo and controlling the epigenetic state of chromatin. Metazoan orthologs of Swr1p (Drosophila Domino; human SRCAP and p400) may have analogous functions.Full Text Article
|Reconstitution of recombinant chromatin establishes a requirement for histone-tail modifications during chromatin assembly and transcription.|
Loyola, A, et al.
Genes Dev., 15: 2837-51 (2001) 2001
The human ISWI-containing factor RSF (remodeling and spacing factor) was found to mediate nucleosome deposition and, in the presence of ATP, generate regularly spaced nucleosome arrays. Using this system, recombinant chromatin was reconstituted with bacterially produced histones. Acetylation of the histone tails was found to play an important role in establishing regularly spaced nucleosome arrays. Recombinant chromatin lacking histone acetylation was impaired in directing transcription. Histone-tail modifications were found to regulate transcription from the recombinant chromatin. Acetylation of the histone tails by p300 was found to increase transcription. Methylation of the histone H3 tail by Suv39H1 was found to repress transcription in an HP1-dependent manner. The effects of histone-tail modifications were observed in nuclear extracts. A highly reconstituted RNA polymerase II transcription system was refractory to the effect imposed by acetylation and methylation.
|Purification and characterization of a human factor that assembles and remodels chromatin.|
LeRoy, G, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 275: 14787-90 (2000) 2000
We have previously reported the isolation and characterization of a nucleosome remodeling and spacing factor, RSF. One of the RSF subunits is hSNF2h, a SNF2 homologue. Here we set out to isolate and characterize other hSNF2h-containing complexes. We have identified a novel hSNF2h complex that facilitates ATP-dependent chromatin assembly with the histone chaperone NAP-1. The complex possesses ATPase activity that is DNA-dependent and nucleosome-stimulated. This complex is capable of facilitating ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling and transcription initiation from chromatin templates. In addition to hSNF2h, this complex also contains a 190-kDa protein encoded by the BAZ1A gene. Since both subunits are homologues of the Drosophila ACF complex (ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor), we have named this factor human ACF or hACF.