Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||FC, ICC, IH(P), IP, WB||Rb||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||100 μL of rabbit monoclonal IgG in 60% storage buffer (50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA) and 40% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 2 years at -20°C from date of shipment.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-mTOR - 2145047||2145047|
|Anti-mTOR - 2428507||2428507|
|Anti-mTOR - 2006914||2006914|
|Anti-mTOR - 2067218||2067218|
|Anti-mTOR - 2147036||2147036|
|Anti-mTOR - 2298346||2298346|
|Anti-mTOR - 2562325||2562325|
|Anti-mTOR - NG1767540||NG1767540|
|Anti-mTOR - NG1855854||NG1855854|
|Anti-mTOR - NG1873278||NG1873278|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role.|
Chen, KT; Tsai, MH; Wu, CH; Jou, MJ; Wei, IH; Huang, CC
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 9 162 2015
Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights-A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR signaling pathway.-The antidepressant-like effects of sarcosine occur through the activated AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway.-Sarcosine could enhance AMPAR membrane insertion via an AMPAR throughput.
|Sirtuin 1 in rat orthotopic liver transplantation: an IGL-1 preservation solution approach.|
Pantazi, E; Zaouali, MA; Bejaoui, M; Folch-Puy, E; Ben Abdennebi, H; Varela, AT; Rolo, AP; Palmeira, CM; Roselló-Catafau, J
World journal of gastroenterology 21 1765-74 2015
To investigate the possible involvement of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), when Institute Georges Lopez 1 (IGL-1) preservation solution is enriched with trimetazidine (TMZ).Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as donors and recipients. Livers were stored in IGL-1 preservation solution for 8h at 4 °C, and then underwent OLT according to Kamada's cuff technique without arterialization. In another group, livers were stored in IGL-1 preservation solution supplemented with TMZ, at 10(-6) mol/L, for 8 h at 4 °C and then underwent OLT. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after reperfusion, and liver and plasma samples were collected. Liver injury (transaminase levels), mitochondrial damage (glutamate dehydrogenase activity) oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), the co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity, were determined by biochemical methods. SIRT1 and its substrates (ac-FoxO1, ac-p53), the precursor of NAD(+), nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), as well as the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-mTOR, p-p70S6K (direct substrate of mTOR), autophagy parameters (beclin-1, LC3B) and MAP kinases (p-p38 and p-ERK) were determined by Western blot.Liver grafts preserved in IGL-1 solution enriched with TMZ presented reduced liver injury and mitochondrial damage compared with those preserved in IGL-1 solution alone. In addition, livers preserved in IGL-1 + TMZ presented reduced levels of oxidative stress. This was consistent with enhanced SIRT1 protein expression and elevated SIRT1 activity, as indicated by decreased acetylation of p53 and FoxO1. The elevated SIRT1 activity in presence of TMZ can be attributed to the enhanced NAMPT protein and NAD(+)/NADH levels. Up-regulation of SIRT1 was consistent with activation of AMPK and inhibition of phosphorylation of mTOR and its direct substrate (p-p70S6K). As a consequence, autophagy mediators (beclin-1 and LC3B) were over-expressed. Furthermore, MAP kinases were regulated in livers preserved with IGL-1 + TMZ, as they were characterized by enhanced p-ERK and decreased p-p38 protein expression.Our study shows that IGL-1 preservation solution enriched with TMZ protects liver grafts from the IRI associated with OLT, through SIRT1 up-regulation.
|Conversion to sirolimus ameliorates cyclosporine-induced nephropathy in the rat: focus on serum, urine, gene, and protein renal expression biomarkers.|
Sereno, J; Nunes, S; Rodrigues-Santos, P; Vala, H; Rocha-Pereira, P; Fernandes, J; Santos-Silva, A; Teixeira, F; Reis, F
BioMed research international 2014 576929 2014
Protocols of conversion from cyclosporin A (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) have been widely used in immunotherapy after transplantation to prevent CsA-induced nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these protocols remain nuclear. This study aimed to identify the molecular pathways and putative biomarkers of CsA-to-SRL conversion in a rat model. Four animal groups (n = 6) were tested during 9 weeks: control, CsA, SRL, and conversion (CsA for 3 weeks followed by SRL for 6 weeks). Classical and emergent serum, urinary, and kidney tissue (gene and protein expression) markers were assessed. Renal lesions were analyzed in hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome stains. SRL-treated rats presented proteinuria and NGAL (serum and urinary) as the best markers of renal impairment. Short CsA treatment presented slight or even absent kidney lesions and TGF-β, NF- κβ, mTOR, PCNA, TP53, KIM-1, and CTGF as relevant gene and protein changes. Prolonged CsA exposure aggravated renal damage, without clear changes on the traditional markers, but with changes in serums TGF- β and IL-7, TBARs clearance, and kidney TGF-β and mTOR. Conversion to SRL prevented CsA-induced renal damage evolution (absent/mild grade lesions), while NGAL (serum versus urine) seems to be a feasible biomarker of CsA replacement to SRL.
|Inhibition of tumor cell growth, proliferation and migration by X-387, a novel active-site inhibitor of mTOR.|
Si-meng Chen,Jia-li Liu,Xiang Wang,Chris Liang,Jian Ding,Ling-hua Meng
Biochemical pharmacology 83 2012
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is deregulated in about 50% of human malignancies and exists in two complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. Rapalogs partially inhibit mTORC1 through allosteric binding to mTORC1 and their efficacy is modest as a cancer therapy. A few mTOR kinase inhibitors that inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2 have been reported to possess potent anticancer activities. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives targeting mTOR kinase domain and X-387 was identified as a promising lead. X-387 selectively inhibited mTOR in an ATP-competitive manner while sparing a panel of kinases from the PIKK family. X-387 blocked mTORC1 and mTORC2-mediacted signaling pathway in cell lines with activated mTOR signaling and in rapamycin-resistant cells. Specifically, X-387 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT at T308, which is thought to be a target of PDK1 but not mTOR. Such activity was not due to inhibition of PI3K since X-387 did not inhibit translocation of AKT to the cell membrane. X-387 induced autophagy as observed for other mTOR inhibitors, while induced autophagy is pro-survival since concurrent inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA reinforced the antiproliferative activity of mTOR inhibitors. X-387 also inhibited cell motility, which is associated with decrease in activity of small GTPases such as RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. Taken together, X-387 is a promising compound lead targeting mTOR and with a wide spectrum anticancer activity among tumor cell lines. The data also underscores the complexity of the mTOR signaling pathways which are far from being understood.
|Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor.|
Van Aller GS, Carson JD, Tang W, Peng H, Zhao L, Copeland RA, Tummino PJ, Luo L
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 406 194-9. Epub 2011 Feb 15. 2011
The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K(i) values of 380 and 320nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme ATPases promote cell proliferation in normal mammary epithelial cells.|
Cohet, N; Stewart, KM; Mudhasani, R; Asirvatham, AJ; Mallappa, C; Imbalzano, KM; Weaver, VM; Imbalzano, AN; Nickerson, JA
Journal of cellular physiology 223 667-78 2010
The ATPase subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes, Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), can induce cell cycle arrest in BRM and BRG1 deficient tumor cell lines, and mice heterozygous for Brg1 are pre-disposed to breast tumors, implicating loss of BRG1 as a mechanism for unregulated cell proliferation. To test the hypothesis that loss of BRG1 can contribute to breast cancer, we utilized RNA interference to reduce the amounts of BRM or BRG1 protein in the nonmalignant mammary epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. When grown in reconstituted basement membrane (rBM), these cells develop into acini that resemble the lobes of normal breast tissue. Contrary to expectations, knockdown of either BRM or BRG1 resulted in an inhibition of cell proliferation in monolayer cultures. This inhibition was strikingly enhanced in three-dimensional rBM culture, although some BRM-depleted cells were later able to resume proliferation. Cells did not arrest in any specific stage of the cell cycle; instead, the cell cycle length increased by approximately 50%. Thus, SWI/SNF ATPases promote cell cycle progression in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells.
|Safety analysis of the diaphragm in combination with lubricant or acidifying microbicide gels: effects on markers of inflammation and innate immunity in cervicovaginal fluid.|
Deborah J Anderson,D'Nyce L Williams,Susan A Ballagh,Kurt Barnhart,Mitchell D Creinin,Daniel R Newman,Frederick P Bowman,Joseph A Politch,Ann C Duerr,Denise J Jamieson
American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989) 61 2009
Diaphragms are being considered for use with vaginal microbicide gels to provide enhanced protection against sexually transmitted pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of a diaphragm with microbicide or placebo gel causes cervicovaginal inflammation or perturbations in cervicovaginal immune defense.