|The novel adaptor protein Tks4 (SH3PXD2B) is required for functional podosome formation.|
Buschman, MD; Bromann, PA; Cejudo-Martin, P; Wen, F; Pass, I; Courtneidge, SA
Molecular biology of the cell
Metastatic cancer cells have the ability to both degrade and migrate through the extracellular matrix (ECM). Invasiveness can be correlated with the presence of dynamic actin-rich membrane structures called podosomes or invadopodia. We showed previously that the adaptor protein tyrosine kinase substrate with five Src homology 3 domains (Tks5)/Fish is required for podosome/invadopodia formation, degradation of ECM, and cancer cell invasion in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe Tks4, a novel protein that is closely related to Tks5. This protein contains an amino-terminal Phox homology domain, four SH3 domains, and several proline-rich motifs. In Src-transformed fibroblasts, Tks4 is tyrosine phosphorylated and predominantly localized to rosettes of podosomes. We used both short hairpin RNA knockdown and mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking Tks4 to investigate its role in podosome formation. We found that lack of Tks4 resulted in incomplete podosome formation and inhibited ECM degradation. Both phenotypes were rescued by reintroduction of Tks4, whereas only podosome formation, but not ECM degradation, was rescued by overexpression of Tks5. The tyrosine phosphorylation sites of Tks4 were required for efficient rescue. Furthermore, in the absence of Tks4, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was not recruited to the incomplete podosomes. These findings suggest that Tks4 and Tks5 have overlapping, but not identical, functions, and implicate Tks4 in MT1-MMP recruitment and ECM degradation.Full Text Article
|The SRC substrate Tks5, podosomes (invadopodia), and cancer cell invasion.|
Courtneidge, S A, et al.
Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol., 70: 167-71 (2005)
Some years ago, we employed a screen of phage cDNA expression libraries to identify novel substrates of the protein tyrosine kinase Src. One of these, Tks5 (previously known as Fish), is a large scaffolding protein with an amino-terminal PX domain and five SH3 domains. In normal fibroblasts, Tks5 is cytoplasmic, but the protein is found in podosomes when the cells are transformed with Src. Using short interfering RNA technology, we have shown that Tks5 is required for podosome formation. Furthermore, cells with reduced Tks5 expression are poorly invasive through Matrigel. Tks5 is expressed and localized to podosomes in invasive human cancer cell lines and in tumor tissue, particularly breast cancers and melanomas. In these cells too, Tks5 is required for invasion. Our future work will focus on the identification of the binding partners of Tks5 that are responsible for podosome formation and invasion, and on determining the role of Tks5 in animal models of metastasis.