Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, Eq, Ch, B||WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal serum in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl and 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Application||Anti-phospho-AMPKα (Thr172) Antibody is an antibody against phospho-AMPKα (Thr172) for use in WB.|
|Application Notes||Western Blot (SNAP ID) Analysis:|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for 1 year from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPK#945; (Thr172) - 2121963||2121963|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPK#945; (Thr172) - 2135176||2135176|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPK#945; (Thr172) - 2139692||2139692|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPK#945; (Thr172) - 2144406||2144406|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPK#945; (Thr172) - 2151046||2151046|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPK#945; (Thr172) - 2166067||2166067|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPKa (Thr172) - 2193167||2193167|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPKa (Thr172) - 2239806||2239806|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPKa (Thr172) - 2275582||2275582|
|Anti-Phospho-AMPKa (Thr172) - 2343568||2343568|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Comparing the effects of nano-sized sugarcane fiber with cellulose and psyllium on hepatic cellular signaling in mice.|
Wang, Zhong Q, et al.
Int J Nanomedicine, 7: 2999-3012 (2012) 2012
To compare the effects of dietary fibers on hepatic cellular signaling in mice.
|Cold tolerance, cold-induced hyperphagia, and nonshivering thermogenesis are normal in α₁-AMPK-/- mice.|
Bauwens, JD; Schmuck, EG; Lindholm, CR; Ertel, RL; Mulligan, JD; Hovis, I; Viollet, B; Saupe, KW
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 301 R473-83 2011
Recent studies indicate that a substantial amount of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) exists in adult humans. Given the unique ability of BAT to convert calories to heat, there is intense interest in understanding the regulation of BAT metabolism in hopes that its manipulation might be an effective way of expending excess calories. Because of the established role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a "metabolic master switch" and its extremely high levels of activity in BAT, it was hypothesized that AMPK might play a central role in regulating BAT metabolism. To test this hypothesis, whole body α(1)-AMPK(-/-) (knockout) and wild-type mice were studied 1) under control (room temperature) conditions, 2) during chronic cold exposure (14 days at 4°C), and 3) during acute nonshivering thermogenesis (injection of a β(3)-adrenergic agonist). Under control conditions, loss of α(1)-AMPK resulted in downregulation of two important prothermogenic genes in BAT, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (-9.2-fold) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (-8.7-fold). Additionally, it caused significant upregulation of α(2)-AMPK activity in BAT, white adipose tissue, and liver, but not cardiac or skeletal muscle. During acute nonshivering thermogenesis and chronic cold exposure, body temperature was indistinguishable in the α(1)-AMPK(-/-) and wild-type mice. Similarly, the degree of cold-induced hyperphagia was identical in the two groups. We conclude that α(1)-AMPK does not play an obligatory role in these processes and that adaptations to chronic loss of α(1)-AMPK are able to compensate for its loss via several mechanisms.
|Central role of nitric oxide synthase in AICAR and caffeine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myocytes.|
McConell, GK; Ng, GP; Phillips, M; Ruan, Z; Macaulay, SL; Wadley, GD
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 108 589-95 2010
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR) and caffeine, which activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cause sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release, respectively, have been shown to increase mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myotubes. Nitric oxide (NO) donors also increase mitochondrial biogenesis. Since neuronal and endothelial NO synthase (NOS) are calcium dependent and are also phosphorylated by AMPK, we hypothesized that NOS inhibition would attenuate the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in response to AICAR and caffeine. L6 myotubes either were not treated (control) or were exposed acutely or for 5 h/day over 5 days to 100 microM of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NOS inhibitor), 100 microM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) (NO donor) +/- 100 microM L-NAME, 2 mM AICAR +/- 100 microM L-NAME, or 5 mM caffeine +/- 100 microM L-NAME (n = 12/treatment). Acute AICAR administration increased (P less than 0.05) phospho- (P-)AMPK, but also increased P-CaMK, with resultant chronic increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha), cytochrome-c oxidase (COX)-1, and COX-4 protein expression compared with control cells. NOS inhibition, which had no effect on AICAR-stimulated P-AMPK, surprisingly increased P-CaMK and attenuated the AICAR-induced increases in COX-1 and COX-4 protein. Caffeine administration, which increased P-CaMK without affecting P-AMPK, increased COX-1, COX-4, PGC-1 alpha, and citrate synthase activity. NOS inhibition, surprisingly, greatly attenuated the effect of caffeine on P-CaMK and attenuated the increases in COX-1 and COX-4 protein. SNAP increased all markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, and it also increased P-AMPK and P-CaMK. In conclusion, AICAR and caffeine increase mitochondrial biogenesis in L6 myotubes, at least in part, via interactions with NOS.
|Dealing with energy demand: the AMP-activated protein kinase.|
Kemp, B E, et al.
Trends Biochem. Sci., 24: 22-5 (1999) 1999
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that is found in all eukaryotes. AMPK activity is regulated by vigorous exercise, nutrient starvation and ischemia/hypoxia, and modulates many aspects of mammalian cell metabolism. The AMPK yeast homolog, Snf1p, plays a major role in adaption to glucose deprivation. In mammals, AMPK also has diverse roles that extend from energy metabolism through to transcriptional control.
|Isoform-specific purification and substrate specificity of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase.|
Michell, B J, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 271: 28445-50 (1996) 1996
The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates several cellular responses to metabolic stress. Rat liver contains at least two isoforms of this enzyme, either alpha1 or alpha2 catalytic subunits together with beta and gamma noncatalytic subunits in a trimeric complex. The alpha1 isoform is purified using a peptide substrate affinity chromatography column with ADR1 (222-234)P229 (LKKLTRRPSFSAQ), corresponding to the cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site in the yeast transcriptional activator of the ADH2 gene, ADR1. This peptide is phosphorylated at Ser230 by AMPK alpha1 with a Km of 3.8 microM and a Vmax of 4.8 micromol/min/mg compared to the commonly used rat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (73-87)A77R86-87 peptide substrate, HMRSAMSGLHLVKRR, with a Km of 33.3 microM and a Vmax of 8.1 micromol/min/mg. Thus, the AMPK exhibits some overlapping specificity with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The rat liver AMPK alpha1 isoform has a Kcat approximately 250-fold higher than the AMPK alpha2 isoform isolated from rat liver. The AMPK alpha1 isoform readily phosphorylates peptides corresponding to the reported AMPK phosphorylation sites in rat, chicken, and yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase and rat hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase but not phosphorylase kinase. Based on previous peptide substrate specificity studies (Dale, S., Wilson, W. A., Edelman, A. M., and Hardie, G. (1995) FEBS Lett. 361, 191-195) using partially purified enzyme and variants of the peptide AMARAASAAALARRR, it was proposed that the AMPK preferred the phosphorylation site motif Phi(X, beta)XXS/TXXXPhi (Phi, hydrophobic; beta, basic). In good AMPK alpha1 peptide substrates, a hydrophobic residue at the P-5 position is conserved but not at the P+4 position. Oxidation of the Met residues in the rat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (73-87)A77R86-87 peptide increased the Km 6-fold and reduced the Vmax to 4% of the reduced peptide.