Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ca, Ft, Po||Enzyme Assays, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-phospho-Caldesmon (Ser789) Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl) with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Application||Detect phospho-Caldesmon (Ser789) using this Anti-phospho-Caldesmon Antibody validated for use in EA & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Smooth muscle tension induces invasive remodeling of the zebrafish intestine.|
Seiler, C; Davuluri, G; Abrams, J; Byfield, FJ; Janmey, PA; Pack, M
PLoS biology 10 e1001386 2012
The signals that initiate cell invasion are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that extracellular physical signals play an important role. Here we show that epithelial cell invasion in the intestine of zebrafish meltdown (mlt) mutants arises in response to unregulated contractile tone in the surrounding smooth muscle cell layer. Physical signaling in mlt drives formation of membrane protrusions within the epithelium that resemble invadopodia, matrix-degrading protrusions present in invasive cancer cells. Knockdown of Tks5, a Src substrate that is required for invadopodia formation in mammalian cells blocked formation of the protrusions and rescued invasion in mlt. Activation of Src-signaling induced invadopodia-like protrusions in wild type epithelial cells, however the cells did not migrate into the tissue stroma, thus indicating that the protrusions were required but not sufficient for invasion in this in vivo model. Transcriptional profiling experiments showed that genes responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were upregulated in mlt larvae. ROS generators induced invadopodia-like protrusions and invasion in heterozygous mlt larvae but had no effect in wild type larvae. Co-activation of oncogenic Ras and Wnt signaling enhanced the responsiveness of mlt heterozygotes to the ROS generators. These findings present the first direct evidence that invadopodia play a role in tissue cell invasion in vivo. In addition, they identify an inducible physical signaling pathway sensitive to redox and oncogenic signaling that can drive this process.
|Phasic phosphorylation of caldesmon and ERK 1/2 during contractions in human myometrium.|
Paul, J; Maiti, K; Read, M; Hure, A; Smith, J; Chan, EC; Smith, R
PloS one 6 e21542 2011
Human myometrium develops phasic contractions during labor. Phosphorylation of caldesmon (h-CaD) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) has been implicated in development of these contractions, however the phospho-regulation of these proteins is yet to be examined during periods of both contraction and relaxation. We hypothesized that protein phosphorylation events are implicated in the phasic nature of myometrial contractions, and aimed to examine h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in myometrium snap frozen at specific stages, including; (1) prior to onset of contractions, (2) at peak contraction and (3) during relaxation. We aimed to compare h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in vitro against results from in vivo studies that compared not-in-labor (NIL) and laboring (L) myometrium. Comparison of NIL (n = 8) and L (n = 8) myometrium revealed a 2-fold increase in h-CaD phosphorylation (ser-789; P = 0.012) during onset of labor in vivo, and was associated with significantly up-regulated ERK2 expression (P = 0.022), however no change in ERK2 phosphorylation was observed (P = 0.475). During in vitro studies (n = 5), transition from non-contracting tissue to tissue at peak contraction was associated with increased phosphorylation of both h-CaD and ERK 1/2. Furthermore, tissue preserved at relaxation phase exhibited diminished levels of h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation compared to tissue preserved at peak contraction, thereby producing a phasic phosphorylation profile for h-CaD and ERK 1/2. h-CaD and ERK 1/2 are phosphorylated during myometrial contractions, however their phospho-regulation is dynamic, in that h-CaD and ERK 1/2 are phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in phase with contraction and relaxation respectively. Comparisons of NIL and L tissue are at risk of failing to detect these changes, as L samples are not necessarily preserved in the midst of an active contraction.Full Text Article
|Mammal-specific, ERK-dependent, caldesmon phosphorylation in smooth muscle. Quantitation using novel anti-phosphopeptide antibodies.|
D'Angelo, G, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 274: 30115-21 (1999) 1999
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) phosphorylate the high molecular mass isoform of the actin-binding protein caldesmon (h-CaD) at two sites (Ser(759) and Ser(789)) during smooth muscle stimulation. To investigate the role of phosphorylation at these sites, antibodies were generated against phosphopeptides analogous to the sequences around Ser(759) and Ser(789). Affinity-purified antibodies were phosho- and sequence-specific. The major site of phosphorylation in h-CaD in porcine carotid arterial muscle strips was at Ser(789); however, the amount of phosphate did not vary appreciably with either KCl or phorbol ester stimulation. Phosphorylation at Ser(759) of h-CaD was almost undetectable (<0.005 mol of phosphate/mol of protein). Moreover, phosphorylation of the low molecular mass isoform of the protein (l-CaD) at the site analogous to Ser(789) was greater in serum-stimulated cultured smooth muscle cells than in serum-starved cells. Serum-stimulated l-CaD phosphorylation was attenuated by the protein kinase inhibitor PD98059. These data 1) identify Ser(789) of h-CaD as the major site of ERK-dependent phosphorylation in carotid arteries; 2) show that the level of phosphorylation at Ser(789) is relatively constant following carotid arterial muscle stimulation, despite an increase in total protein phosphate content; and 3) suggest a functional role for ERK-dependent l-CaD phosphorylation in cell division.