Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Gt, H, M, R, Sh||WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Immunoaffinity purified rabbit IgG in 0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Application||Anti-phospho-Flt-1 (Tyr1213) Antibody detects level of phospho-Flt-1 (Tyr1213) & has been published & validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles, which may damage IgG and affect product performance.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Intrinsic bevacizumab resistance is associated with prolonged activation of autocrine VEGF signaling and hypoxia tolerance in colorectal cancer cells and can be overcome by nintedanib, a small molecule angiokinase inhibitor.|
Mésange, P; Poindessous, V; Sabbah, M; Escargueil, AE; de Gramont, A; Larsen, AK
Oncotarget 5 4709-21 2014
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common tumor type with a high mortality rate, in part due to intrinsic drug resistance. Although bevacizumab, a VEGF-directed neutralizing antibody, is particularly active in this pathology, some patients never respond for reasons not well understood. We here wish to clarify the role of autocrine VEGF signaling in the response of CRC cells to angiogenesis inhibition. Our results show that CRC cells with intrinsic bevacizumab-resistance displayed pronounced upregulation of autocrine HIF-VEGF-VEGFR signaling in response to prolonged bevacizumab exposure whereas the same signaling pathway was downregulated in bevacizumab-sensitive xenografts. Importantly, both bevacizumab-sensitive and -resistant CRC xenografts were sensitive to nintedanib, a small molecule angiokinase inhibitor, which was associated with inhibition of mTORC1. In vitro studies revealed that bevacizumab-resistant cells displayed intrinsically higher HIF-VEGF signaling intensity and hypoxia tolerance compared to their bevacizumab-sensitive counterparts. Interestingly, although nintedanib showed comparable activity toward bevacizumab-sensitive cells under normoxia and hypoxia, the drug was three-fold more toxic to the resistant cells under hypoxia, suggesting that nintedanib attenuated the survival signaling that usually protects these cells from hypoxia-mediated cell death. In conclusion, our findings support a role for autocrine VEGF signaling in the survival of CRC cells to hypoxia and thus to angiogenesis inhibition. We further show that nintedanib, a small molecule angiokinase inhibitor, is active toward CRC models with intrinsic bevacizumab resistance supporting clinical trials of nintedanib in patients that do not respond to bevacizumab, alone or in combination with bevacizumab to increase angiogenesis inhibition.
|EGFR- and VEGF(R)-targeted small molecules show synergistic activity in colorectal cancer models refractory to combinations of monoclonal antibodies.|
Poindessous, V; Ouaret, D; El Ouadrani, K; Battistella, A; Mégalophonos, VF; Kamsu-Kom, N; Petitprez, A; Escargueil, AE; Boudou, P; Dumont, S; Cervera, P; Fléjou, JF; André, T; Tournigand, C; Chibaudel, B; de Gramont, A; Larsen, AK
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 17 6522-30 2011
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and VEGF(R) signaling show extensive cross-talk, providing a rationale for joint targeting of the two pathways. However, combinations of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting EGFR and VEGF showed disappointing activity in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We speculated that inhibition of surface receptors and ligands might only partly prevent oncogenic signaling whereas small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) would also influence intracellular signaling.Mice with CRC xenografts were treated with two TKIs, vargatef and afatinib, or with two mAbs, bevacizumab and cetuximab, and their influence on tumor growth, viability, in vivo DNA synthesis, and the presence of phosphorylated EGFR and VEGFR was determined. The activity of the TKIs was further characterized in CRC cells with different KRAS status.Vargatef and afatinib together showed strong tumor growth inhibition toward HT-29 xenografts compared with either drug alone, which was associated with a 5-fold increase in apoptotic tumor cell death. In comparison, bevacizumab and cetuximab together were exclusively cytostatic with no more activity than either drug alone. Exposure to the two TKIs was accompanied by a marked decrease of tumor-associated intracellular phospho-VEGFR1 and phospho-EGFR, whereas similar exposure to the two mAbs had no detectable effect. A synergistic activity of vargatef plus afatinib was observed in all eight CRC cell lines examined, independent of KRAS status.Our results indicate that attenuation of intracellular EGFR and/or VEGF signaling is required for cytotoxic activity. These findings provide a rationale for trials of the TKIs, even in patients with mutant KRAS.
|Vascular protection by angiotensin receptor antagonism involves differential VEGF expression in both hemispheres after experimental stroke.|
Guan, W; Somanath, PR; Kozak, A; Goc, A; El-Remessy, AB; Ergul, A; Johnson, MH; Alhusban, A; Soliman, S; Fagan, SC
PloS one 6 e24551 2011
We identified that the angiotensin receptor antagonist, candesartan, has profound neurovascular protective properties when administered after ischemic stroke and was associated with a proangiogenic state at least partly explained by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). However, the spatial distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms and their receptors remained unknown. Protein analysis identified a significant increase in vascular endothelial grow factor B (VEGFB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the ischemic hemispheres (with increased VEGF receptor 1 activation) of treated animals (pless than 0.05) which was co-occurring with an increase in protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation (pless than 0.05). An increase in VEGFA protein in the contralesional hemisphere corresponded to a significant increase in vascular density at seven days (pless than 0.01) after stroke onset. Vascular restoration by candesartan after stroke maybe related to differential regional upregulation of VEGFB and VEGFA, promoting a "prosurvival state" in the ischemic hemisphere and angiogenesis in the contralesional side, respectively. These vascular changes in both hemispheres after effective treatment are likely to contribute to enhanced recovery after stroke.
|Vascular endothelial growth factor blockade rapidly elicits alternative proangiogenic pathways in neuroblastoma.|
Zaghloul, N; Hernandez, SL; Bae, JO; Huang, J; Fisher, JC; Lee, A; Kadenhe-Chiweshe, A; Kandel, JJ; Yamashiro, DJ
International journal of oncology 34 401-7 2009
Most children with neuroblastoma presenting after infancy have metastatic, chemoresistant disease. Amplification of the MYCN proto-oncogene is a significant marker of these poor-prognosis neuroblastoma tumors. Recent studies suggest that MYCN may function in part by promoting angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF blockade has been validated as a therapeutic strategy in adult cancers. In these studies, we asked whether inhibition of VEGF signaling via VEGFR2 blockade in established MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma xenografts would: 1) restrict tumor growth; 2) induce hypoxia; and 3) alter tumor vasculature. The MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma human cell line NGP was implanted intrarenally in athymic female mice. After 5 weeks, mice with established tumors were selected, a cohort euthanized to provide day 0 controls, and the rest assigned to receive biweekly injections of DC101 (anti-murine VEGFR2 antibody) or vehicle. DC101 treatment did not inhibit progressive tumor growth in established NGP xenografts. Although tumor vasculature was not significantly disrupted, a modest increase in tumor hypoxia was demonstrated by pimonidazole staining, and expression of a previously described hypoxia metagene was increased by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) in DC101-treated tumors. DC101 treatment elicited increased: 1) expression of VEGFR1 and its ligand placental growth factor; and 2) increased Notch activation in tumor vasculature concurrent with expression of the Notch ligand Jagged1. This result suggests that established MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma tumors are relatively VEGF-independent, and display the ability to rapidly up-regulate hypoxia-responsive alternative proangiogenic mechanisms that may stabilize vasculature when VEGF is deficient.
|Therapeutic targeting of neuropilin-2 on colorectal carcinoma cells implanted in the murine liver.|
Gray, MJ; Van Buren, G; Dallas, NA; Xia, L; Wang, X; Yang, AD; Somcio, RJ; Lin, YG; Lim, S; Fan, F; Mangala, LS; Arumugam, T; Logsdon, CD; Lopez-Berestein, G; Sood, AK; Ellis, LM
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100 109-20 2008
Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and semaphorin 3F. We investigated its function in human colorectal cancers.Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were used to assess NRP2 expression levels in colorectal tumors and colorectal cancer cell lines, respectively. HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells stably transfected with short hairpin RNA (shRNAs) against NRP2 or control shRNAs were assayed for proliferation by the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and for activation of the VEGFR1 pathway by immunoblotting. Soft agar assays, Annexin V staining, and Boyden chamber assays were used to examine anchorage-independent growth, apoptosis in response to hypoxia, and cell migration/invasion, respectively, in HCT-116 transfectants. Tumor growth and metastasis were analyzed in mice (groups of 10) injected with shRNA-expressing HCT-116 cells. The effect of in vivo targeting of NRP2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the growth of hepatic colorectal tumors derived from luciferase-expressing HCT-116 cells was assessed by measuring changes in bioluminescence and final tumor volumes. All statistical tests were two-sided.NRP2 expression was substantially higher in tumors than in adjacent mucosa. HCT-116 transfectants with reduced NRP2 levels had reduced VEGFR1 signaling, but proliferation was unchanged. Anchorage-independent growth, survival under hypoxic conditions, and motility/invasiveness were also reduced. In vivo, HCT-116 transfectants with reduced NRP2 demonstrated decreased tumor growth, fewer metastases, and increased apoptosis compared with control cells. Hepatic colorectal tumors in mice treated with NRP2 siRNAs were statistically significantly smaller than those in mice treated with control siRNAs (at 28 days after implantation, mean control siRNAs = 420 mm3, mean NRP2 siRNAs = 36 mm3, NRP2 vs control: difference = 385 mm3, 95% confidence interval = 174 mm3 to 595 mm3, P = .005).NRP2 on colorectal carcinoma cells is important for tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in human cancers where it is expressed.
|Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.|
Cancer Treat. Res., 117: 3-32 (2004) 2004