|Mi-2/NuRD complex function is required for normal S phase progression and assembly of pericentric heterochromatin.|
Sims, JK; Wade, PA
Molecular biology of the cell
During chromosome duplication, it is essential to replicate not only the DNA sequence, but also the complex nucleoprotein structures of chromatin. Pericentric heterochromatin is critical for silencing repetitive elements and plays an essential structural role during mitosis. However, relatively little is understood about its assembly and maintenance during replication. The Mi2/NuRD chromatin remodeling complex tightly associates with actively replicating pericentric heterochromatin, suggesting a role in its assembly. Here we demonstrate that depletion of the catalytic ATPase subunit CHD4/Mi-2β in cells with a dampened DNA damage response results in a slow-growth phenotype characterized by delayed progression through S phase. Furthermore, we observe defects in pericentric heterochromatin maintenance and assembly. Our data suggest that chromatin assembly defects are sensed by an ATM-dependent intra-S phase chromatin quality checkpoint, resulting in a temporal block to the transition from early to late S phase. These findings implicate Mi-2β in the maintenance of chromatin structure and proper cell cycle progression.
|Histone deimination as a response to inflammatory stimuli in neutrophils.|
Indira Neeli,Salar N Khan,Marko Radic
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Posttranslational modifications, such as the deimination of arginine to citrulline by peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD4), change protein structure and function. For autoantigens, covalent modifications represent a mechanism to sidestep tolerance and stimulate autoimmunity. To examine conditions leading to histone deimination in neutrophils, we used Abs that detect citrullines in the N terminus of histone H3. Deimination was investigated in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells differentiated into granulocytes. We observed rapid and robust H3 deimination in HL-60 cells exposed to LPS, TNF, lipoteichoic acid, f-MLP, or hydrogen peroxide, which are stimuli that activate neutrophils. Importantly, we also observed H3 deimination in human neutrophils exposed to these stimuli. Citrullinated histones were identified as components of extracellular chromatin traps (NETs) produced by degranulating neutrophils. In contrast, apoptosis proceeded without detectable H3 deimination in HL-60 cells exposed to staurosporine or camptothecin. We conclude that histone deimination in neutrophils is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli and not by treatments that induce apoptosis. Our results further suggest that deiminated histone H3, a covalently modified form of a prominent nuclear autoantigen, is released to the extracellular space as part of the neutrophil response to infections. The possible association of a modified autoantigen with microbial components could, in predisposed individuals, increase the risk of autoimmunity.
|Histone modifications associated with somatic hypermutation.|
Odegard, VH; Kim, ST; Anderson, SM; Shlomchik, MJ; Schatz, DG
A number of modified histones, including acetylated H3 and H4 and phosphorylated H2AX (gammaH2AX), are associated with V(D)J recombination and class switch recombination (CSR). In contrast, little is known concerning the chromatin modifications associated with somatic hypermutation (SHM) in vivo. Here, we report that several modifications--including histone acetylation and H3-lysine 4 methylation--fail to demarcate an actively hypermutating immunoglobulin (Ig) locus or to correlate spatially with SHM within Ig loci. Furthermore, no obvious association between SHM and gammaH2AX could be detected. Instead, we find that the phosphorylated form of histone H2B (H2B(Ser14P)) correlates tightly with SHM and CSR. Phosphorylation of H2B within Ig variable and switch regions requires AID and may be mediated by the histone kinase Mst1. These findings indicate that SHM and CSR trigger distinct DNA damage responses and identify a novel histone modification pattern for SHM consisting of H2B(Ser14P) in the absence of gammaH2AX.