|Cytomixis doesn't induce obvious changes in chromatin modifications and programmed cell death in tobacco male meiocytes.|
Mursalimov, S; Permyakova, N; Deineko, E; Houben, A; Demidov, D
Frontiers in plant science
Cytomixis is a poorly studied process of nuclear migration between plant cells. It is so far unknown what drives cytomixis and what is the functional state of the chromatin migrating between cells. Using immunostaining, we have analyzed the distribution of posttranslational histone modifications (methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation) that reflect the functional state of chromatin in the tobacco microsporocytes involved in cytomixis. We demonstrate that the chromatin in the cytomictic cells does not differ from the chromatin in intact microsporocytes according to all 14 analyzed histone modification types. We have also for the first time demonstrated that the migrating chromatin contains normal structures of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and lacks any signs of apoptosis. As has been shown, the chromatin migrating between cells in cytomixis is neither selectively heterochromatized nor degraded both before its migration to another cell and after it enters a recipient cell as micronuclei. We also showed that cytomictic chromatin contains marks typical for transcriptionally active chromatin as well as heterochromatin. Moreover, marks typical for chromosome condensation, SC formation and key proteins required for the formation of bivalents were also detected at migrated chromatin.
|Ablation of leptin signaling disrupts the establishment, development, and maintenance of endometriosis-like lesions in a murine model.|
Styer, AK; Sullivan, BT; Puder, M; Arsenault, D; Petrozza, JC; Serikawa, T; Chang, S; Hasan, T; Gonzalez, RR; Rueda, BR
Leptin, a 16-kDa cytokine, has been implicated in several reproductive processes and disorders. Notably, elevated leptin levels in the peritoneal fluid of women with mild endometriosis has been demonstrated, suggesting a role for this cytokine in the early stages of disease establishment. To gain insight into the functional significance of leptin during the initial requisite proliferative and neovascularization events involved in endometriosis, we investigated the effect of disruption of in vivo leptin signaling on the establishment and/or maintenance of an endometriosis-like lesion in a syngeneic immunocompetent mouse model of endometriosis. Findings of this study show that the disruption of leptin signaling by ip injection of the pegylated leptin peptide receptor antagonist (LPrA) impairs the establishment of endometriosis-like lesions (derived from uteri of C57BL/6 female siblings) and results in a reduction of viable organized glandular epithelium, vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression, and mitotic activity. LPrA treatment resulted in a significant reduction of microvascular density in endometriosis-like lesions after continuous and acute courses. Endometriosis-like lesions (derived from tissue with functional leptin receptor) of Lepr(db) hosts (nonfunctional leptin receptor) were phenotypically similar to those of LPrA-treated mice. Our results confirm that leptin signaling is a necessary component in lesion proliferation, early vascular recruitment, and maintenance of neoangiogenesis in a murine model of endometriosis.Full Text Article
|Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)||Mouse||17962343
|Adult neurogenesis: a common strategy across diverse species.|
Sullivan, JM; Benton, JL; Sandeman, DC; Beltz, BS
The Journal of comparative neurology
Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons from adult precursor cells, occurs in the brains of a phylogenetically diverse array of animals. In the higher (amniotic) vertebrates, these precursor cells are glial cells that reside within specialized regions, known as neurogenic niches, the elements of which both support and regulate neurogenesis. The in vivo identity and location of the precursor cells responsible for adult neurogenesis in nonvertebrate taxa, however, remain largely unknown. Among the invertebrates, adult neurogenesis has been particularly well characterized in freshwater crayfish (Arthropoda, Crustacea), although the identity of the precursor cells sustaining continuous neuronal proliferation in these animals has yet to be established. Here we provide evidence suggesting that, as in the higher vertebrates, the precursor cells maintaining adult neurogenesis in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are glial cells. These precursor cells reside within a specialized region, or niche, on the ventral surface of the brain, and their progeny migrate from this niche along glial fibers and then proliferate to form new neurons in the central olfactory pathway. The niche in which these precursor cells reside has many features in common with the neurogenic niches of higher vertebrates. These commonalities include: glial cells functioning as both precursor and support cells, directed migration, close association with the brain vasculature, and specialized basal laminae. The cellular machinery maintaining adult neurogenesis appears, therefore, to be shared by widely disparate taxa. These extensive structural and functional parallels suggest a common strategy for the generation of new neurons in adult brains.