Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-phospho-Raf-1 (Ser338) Antibody|
|Presentation||PBS, pH 7.4, with 0.09% sodium azide|
|Application||Detect phospho-Raf-1 (Ser338) using this Anti-phospho-Raf-1 (Ser338) Antibody validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||1 year at -20°C|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Activation of protein kinase Calpha signaling prevents cytotoxicity and mutagenicity following lead acetate in CL3 human lung cancer cells.|
Chun-Yu Wang, Yun-Wei Lin, Jia-Ling Yang
Toxicology 250 55-61 2008
Protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine protein kinases is sensitive signaling transducers in response to lead acetate (Pb) that could transmit phosphorylation cascade for proliferation and de-differentiation of neural cells. However, little is known as to the impact of PKC on Pb genotoxicity. Here we investigate whether Pb activates the conventional/classical subfamily of PKC (cPKC) signaling to affect cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb specifically promoted membrane localization of the alpha isoform of PKC in CL3 cells. Pb also elicited Raf-1 activation as measured by the induction of phospho-Raf-1S338 and the dissociation from the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein. Inhibition of cPKC activity using Gö6976 or depletion of PKCalpha by introducing specific small interfering RNA blocked the induction of phospho-Raf-1S338, phospho-MKK1/2 and phospho-ERK1/2 in cells exposed to Pb. Intriguingly, declining PKCalpha enhanced the Pb cytotoxicity and revealed the Pb mutagenicity at the hprt gene. The results suggest that PKCalpha is obligatory for activation of the Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling module and plays a defensive role against cytotoxicity and mutagenicity following Pb exposure. Results obtained in this study also support our previous report showing that ERK1/2 activity is involved in preventing Pb genotoxicity.
|Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein: structure, function, regulation of cell signaling, and pivotal role in apoptosis.|
Odabaei, Golaun, et al.
Adv. Cancer Res., 91: 169-200 (2004) 2004
The acquisition of resistance to conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs remains the major obstacle in the successful treatment of cancer patients. Tumor cells acquire resistance to apoptotic stimuli and it has been demonstrated that conventional therapies exert their cytotoxic activities primarily by inducing apoptosis in the cells. Resistance to radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs has led to the development of immunotherapy and gene therapy approaches with the intent of overcoming resistance to drugs and radiation as well as enhancing the specificity to eliminate tumor cells. However, cytotoxic lymphocytes primarily kill by apoptosis and, therefore, drug-resistant tumor cells may also be cross-resistant to immunotherapy. To evade apoptosis, tumor cells have adopted various mechanisms that interfere with the apoptotic signaling pathways and promote constitutive activation of cellular proliferation and survival pathways. Thus, modifications of the antiapoptotic genes in cancer cells are warranted for the effectiveness of conventional therapies as well as novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Such modifications will avert the resistant phenotype of the tumor cells and will render them susceptible to apoptosis. Current studies, both in vitro and preclinically in vivo, have been aimed at the modification and regulation of expression of apoptosis-related gene products and their activities. A novel protein designated Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has been partially characterized. RKIP is a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family. RKIP has been shown to disrupt the Raf-1-MEK1/2 [mitogen-activated protein kinase-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) kinase-1/2]-ERK1/2 and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, via physical interaction with Raf-1-MEK1/2 and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase or transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1, respectively, thereby abrogating the survival and antiapoptotic properties of these signaling pathways. In addition, RKIP has been shown to act as a signal modifier that enhances receptor signaling by inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2. By regulating cell signaling, growth, and survival through its expression and activity, RKIP is considered to play a pivotal role in cancer, regulating apoptosis induced by drugs or immune-mediated stimuli. Overexpression of RKIP sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. Also, induction of RKIP by drugs or anti-receptor antibodies sensitizes cancer cells to drug-induced apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the discovery, structure, function, and significance of RKIP in cancer.
|Untying the regulation of the Raf-1 kinase.|
Dhillon, Amardeep S and Kolch, Walter
Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 404: 3-9 (2002) 2002
The Raf-1 kinase is the entry point to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-1/2) signaling pathway, which controls fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, and survival. As such, Raf-1 is regulated by complex mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Recent results have shown that release from repression is an important event that facilitates the interaction of Raf-1 with the Ras activator and its substrate, MAPK/ERK-1/2 kinase. A number of distinct activation steps contribute in a combinatorial fashion to regulate and adjust Raf-1 activity. The efficiency of downstream signal transmission is modulated by protein:protein interactions, and new data consolidate an important role for kinase suppressor of ras (KSR) as a scaffolding protein. KSR is a dynamic scaffold whose function and localization is regulated by phosphorylation.
|Design and discovery of small molecules targeting raf-1 kinase.|
Lowinger, Timothy B, et al.
Curr. Pharm. Des., 8: 2269-78 (2002) 2002
Raf kinase, an enzyme which acts downstream in the Ras signaling pathway, is involved in cancerous cell proliferation. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of Raf kinase activity may be important agents for the treatment of cancer. A novel class of Raf-1 inhibitors was discovered, using a combination of medicinal and combinatorial chemistry approaches. This effort culminated in the identification of the clinical candidate BAY 43-9006, currently undergoing Phase I clinical trials. The present review summarizes the medicinal chemistry development of ureas as highly potent inhibitors of Raf-1 kinase.
|Serine and tyrosine phosphorylations cooperate in Raf-1, but not B-Raf activation.|
Mason, C S, et al.
EMBO J., 18: 2137-48 (1999) 1999
The Raf family of serine/threonine protein kinases couple growth factor receptor stimulation to mitogen activated protein kinase activation, but their own regulation is poorly understood. Using phospho-specific antisera, we show that activated Raf-1 is phosphorylated on S338 and Y341. Expression of Raf-1 with oncogenic Ras gives predominantly S338 phosphorylation, whereas activated Src gives predominantly Y341 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at both sites is maximal only when both oncogenic Ras and activated Src are present. Raf-1 that cannot interact with Ras-GTP is not phosphorylated, showing that phosphorylation is Ras dependent, presumably occurring at the plasma membrane. Mutations which prevent phosphorylation at either site block Raf-1 activation and maximal activity is seen only when both are phosphorylated. Mutations at S339 or Y340 do not block Raf-1 activation. While B-Raf lacks a tyrosine phosphorylation site equivalent to Y341 of Raf-1, S445 of B-Raf is equivalent to S338 of Raf-1. Phosphorylation of S445 is constitutive and is not stimulated by oncogenic Ras. However, S445 phosphorylation still contributes to B-Raf activation by elevating basal and consequently Ras-stimulated activity. Thus, there are considerable differences between the activation of the Raf proteins; Ras-GTP mediates two phosphorylation events required for Raf-1 activation but does not regulate such events for B-Raf.