|Induction of STAT1 phosphorylation at serine 727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.|
Yu, Y; Wang, R; Nan, Y; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral pathogen that causes acute respiratory illnesses in young pigs. Since 1987, PRRSV has contributed substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-infected pigs is thought to contribute to PRRSV pathogenesis. In this study, PRRSV VR-2385, a Type 2 strain with moderate virulence, was found to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) at serine 727 (pSTAT1-S727) in MARC-145 cells. No phosphorylated STAT1 at tyrosine 701 was detected, which indicates that the pSTAT1-S727 elevation was interferon-independent. The PRRSV-induced pSTAT1-S727, however, was dose-dependent and its levels increased with infection time. IngelVac PRRS MLV strain had a minimal effect on pSTAT1-S727. Compared to MLV-infected cells, VR-2385 infection caused significantly higher level of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) and IL-8. The VR-2385-induced pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression were reduced after SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or methylthioadenosine (MTA), a methyl transferase inhibitor, was added to the cells. The SB203580 and MTA-mediated inhibition suggested that the virus-induced pSTAT1-S727 was dependent on p38 MAPK pathway. In primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), VR-2385 also induced pSTAT1-S727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1beta, IL-8, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10). Similarly, SB203580 treatment of PAM cells blocked the elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression. Overexpression of individual viral proteins showed that non-structural protein 12 (nsp12) was able to induce elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of IL-1β and IL-8. These results indicated that PRRSV VR-2385 induces pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which contributes to the insight of PRRSV pathogenesis.
|Maximal activation of transcription by Stat1 and Stat3 requires both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation.|
Wen, Z, et al.
Cell, 82: 241-50 (1995)
Stat1 and Stat3 are latent transcriptional factors activated initially through phosphorylation on single tyrosine residues induced by cytokine and growth factor occupation of cell surface receptors. Here we show that phosphorylation on a single serine (residue 727) in each protein is also required for maximal transcriptional activity. Both cytokines and growth factors are capable of inducing the serine phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat3. These experiments show that gene activation by Stat1 and Stat3, which obligatorily require tyrosine phosphorylation to become active, also depends for maximal activation on one or more of the many serine kinases.
|Requirement of serine phosphorylation for formation of STAT-promoter complexes.|
Zhang, X, et al.
Science, 267: 1990-4 (1995)
Members of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines bind to and activate receptors that contain a common subunit, gp130. This leads to the activation of Stat3 and Stat1, two cytoplasmic signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), by tyrosine phosphorylation. Serine phosphorylation of Stat3 was constitutive and was enhanced by signaling through gp130. In cells of lymphoid and neuronal origins, inhibition of serine phosphorylation prevented the formation of complexes of DNA with Stat3-Stat3 but not with Stat3-Stat1 or Stat1-Stat1 dimers. In vitro serine dephosphorylation of Stat3 also inhibited DNA binding of Stat3-Stat3. The requirement of serine phosphorylation for Stat3-Stat3.DNA complex formation was inversely correlated with the affinity of Stat3-Stat3 for the binding site. Thus, serine phosphorylation appears to enhance or to be required for the formation of stable Stat3-Stat3.DNA complexes.