Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-phospho-STAT5A/B (Ser726/Ser731) Antibody|
|Presentation||rabbit antiserum in 30% glycerol and 0.05% sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Development of pure prolactin receptor antagonists.|
Bernichtein, S; Kayser, C; Dillner, K; Moulin, S; Kopchick, JJ; Martial, JA; Norstedt, G; Isaksson, O; Kelly, PA; Goffin, V
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 35988-99 2003
Prolactin (PRL) promotes tumor growth in various experimental models and leads to prostate hyperplasia and mammary neoplasia in PRL transgenic mice. Increasing experimental evidence argues for the involvement of autocrine PRL in this process. PRL receptor antagonists have been developed to counteract these undesired proliferative actions of PRL. However, all forms of PRL receptor antagonists obtained to date exhibit partial agonism, preventing their therapeutic use as full antagonists. In the present study, we describe the development of new human PRL antagonists devoid of agonistic properties and therefore able to act as pure antagonists. This was demonstrated using several in vitro bioassays, including highly sensitive assays able to detect extremely low levels of receptor activation. These new compounds also act as pure antagonists in vivo, as assessed by analyzing their ability to competitively inhibit PRL-triggered signaling cascades in various target tissues (liver, mammary gland, and prostate). Finally, by using transgenic mice expressing PRL specifically in the prostate, which exhibit constitutively activated signaling cascades paralleling hyperplasia, we show that these new PRL analogs are able to completely revert PRL-activated events. These second generation human PRL antagonists are good candidates to be used as inhibitors of growth-promoting actions of PRL.
|Yin-yang 1 and glucocorticoid receptor participate in the Stat5-mediated growth hormone response of the serine protease inhibitor 2.1 gene.|
P L Bergad, H C Towle, S A Berry
The Journal of biological chemistry 275 8114-20 2000
A growth hormone-inducible nuclear factor complex (GHINF), affinity-purified using the growth hormone response element (GHRE) from the promoter of rat serine protease inhibitor 2.1, was found to contain Stat5a and -5b, as well as additional components. The ubiquitous transcription factor yin-yang 1 (YY1) is present in GHINF. An antibody to YY1 inhibited the formation of the GHINF.GHRE complex in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Furthermore, Stat5 was co-immunoprecipitated from rat hepatic nuclear extracts with antibodies to YY1. An examination of the GHRE shows that, in addition to two gamma-activated sites, it contains a putative YY1 binding site between the two gamma-activated sites, overlapping them both. Mutation of this putative YY1 site results in a decrease of GHINF.GHRE complex formation in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a corresponding decrease in growth hormone (GH) response in functional assays. The glucocorticoid receptor was also present in GHINF, and Stat5 co-immunoprecipitates with glucocorticoid receptor in hepatic nuclear extracts from rats treated with GH. GH activation of serine protease inhibitor 2.1 requires the unique sequence of the GHRE encompassing the recognition sites of several transcription factors, and the interaction of these factors enhances the assembly of the transcription complex.
|Differential control of the phosphorylation state of proline-juxtaposed serine residues Ser725 of Stat5a and Ser730 of Stat5b in prolactin-sensitive cells.|
Yamashita, H, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 273: 30218-24 (1998) 1998
Transcription factors of the Stat family are controlled by protein kinases. Phosphorylation of a positionally conserved tyrosine residue is obligatory for Stat dimerization, nuclear translocation, and specific DNA binding. Studies of Stat1 and Stat3 have suggested that serine phosphorylation may also regulate function. We now identify serine residues located in a conserved PSP motif of Stat5a (Ser725) and Stat5b (Ser730) as major phosphorylation sites, using mutagenesis, phosphoamino acid analysis, and site-specific anti-Stat5-phosphoserine antibodies. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation control of this PSP motif differed between the highly homologous Stat5a and Stat5b proteins. Whereas Ser725 of Stat5a was constitutively phosphorylated both in COS-7 cells and Nb2 lymphocytes, phosphorylation of Ser730 of Stat5b was markedly stimulated by prolactin. The data also suggested the existence of a second major serine phosphorylation site in Stat5a. Interestingly, constitutive phosphorylation of the PSP motif was suppressed by PD98059 but not by staurosporine under conditions in which both agents inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinases. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with staurosporine, PD98059, H7, or wortmannin did not prevent either Stat5a or Stat5b from becoming maximally serine-phosphorylated after prolactin exposure. We propose that two pathways regulate Stat5 serine phosphorylation, one that is prolactin-activated and PD98059-resistant and one that is constitutively active and PD98059-sensitive and preferentially targets Stat5a. Finally, phosphorylation of the PSP motif of Stat5a or Stat5b was not essential for DNA binding or transcriptional activation of a beta-casein reporter gene in COS-7 cells, suggesting that serine kinase control of Stat5 activity differs from that of Stat1 and Stat3.
|Prolactin stimulates serine/tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of heterocomplexes of multiple Stat5 isoforms in Nb2 lymphocytes.|
Kirken, R A, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 272: 14098-103 (1997) 1997
Transcription factors of the Stat gene family are selectively activated by many hormones and cytokines. Stat5 originally was cloned as a prolactin-stimulated DNA-binding protein, but is also activated by non-lactogenic cytokines in many cell types. The recent identification of two distinct Stat5 genes, which encode a 94-kDa Stat5a and a 92-kDa Stat5b as well as several lower molecular weight isoforms, suggests additional complexity and combinatorial possibilities for transcriptional regulation. We now report a biochemical analysis of prolactin activation of Stat proteins in Nb2 lymphocytes, which was associated with: 1) rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5a, Stat5b, a COOH-terminally truncated 80-kDa Stat5 form, Stat1alpha, and Stat3; 2) rapid and selective formation of Stat5a/b heterodimers, without involvement of Stat1alpha or Stat3; 3) marked serine, but not threonine phosphorylation of Stat5a and Stat5b; and 4) the appearance of two qualitatively distinct Stat5 protein complexes, which discriminated between oligonucleotides corresponding to the prolactin response elements of the beta-casein and interferon regulatory factor-1 gene promoters. Collectively, our analyses showed that Stat5a and Stat5b respond similarly to prolactin receptor activation, but also suggested that the two genes have evolved unique properties that may contribute to the specificity of receptors that utilize Stat5 signaling proteins.
|Two discrete regions of interleukin-2 (IL2) receptor beta independently mediate IL2 activation of a PD98059/rapamycin/wortmannin-insensitive Stat5a/b serine kinase.|
Kirken, R A, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 272: 15459-65 (1997) 1997
Many cytokines, hormones, and growth factors activate Janus kinases to tyrosine phosphorylate select members of the Stat transcription factors. For full transcriptional activation, Stat1 and Stat3 also require phosphorylation of a conserved serine residue within a mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation consensus site. On the other hand, two recently identified and highly homologous Stat5a and Stat5b proteins lack this putative mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation site. The present study set out to establish whether Stat5a and Stat5b are under the control of an interleukin-2 (IL2)-activated Stat5 serine kinase. We now report that IL2 stimulated marked phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues of both Stat5a and Stat5b in human T lymphocytes and in several IL2-responsive lymphocytic cell lines. No Stat5a/b phosphothreonine was detected. Phosphoamino acid analysis also revealed that Stat5a/b phosphotyrosine levels were maximized within 1-5 min of IL2 stimulation, whereas serine phosphorylation kinetics were slower. Interestingly, IL2-induced serine phosphorylation of Stat5a differed quantitatively and temporally from that of Stat5b with Stat5a serine phosphorylation leveling off after 10 min and the more pronounced Stat5b response continuing to rise for at least 60 min of IL2 stimulation. Furthermore, we identified two discrete domains of IL2 receptor beta (IL2Rbeta) that could independently restore the ability of a truncated IL2Rbeta mutant to mediate Stat5a/b phosphorylation and DNA binding to the gamma-activated site of the beta-casein gene promoter. These observations demonstrated that there is no strict requirement for one particular IL2Rbeta region for Stat5 phosphorylation. Finally, we established that the IL2-activated Stat5a/b serine kinase is insensitive to several selective inhibitors of known IL2-stimulated kinases including MEK1/MEK2 (PD98059), mTOR (rapamycin), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (wortmannin) as determined by phosphoamino acid and DNA binding analysis, thus suggesting that a yet-to-be-identified serine kinase mediates Stat5a/b activation.
|JAK/STAT Signaling Research Focus|