Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||ICC, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Double immunoaffinity purified rabbit polyclonal IgG in buffer containing 0.1M Tris-Glycine, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% Sodium Azide, pH7.4|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|S100A14, a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins, is overexpressed in breast cancer and acts as a modulator of HER2 signaling.|
Xu, C; Chen, H; Wang, X; Gao, J; Che, Y; Li, Y; Ding, F; Luo, A; Zhang, S; Liu, Z
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 827-37 2014
HER2 is overexpressed in 20–25% of breast cancers. Overexpression of HER2 is an adverse prognostic factor and correlates with decreased patient survival. HER2 stimulates breast tumorigenesis via a number of intracellular signaling molecules, including PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK.S100A14,one member of the S100 protein family, is significantly associated with outcome of breast cancer patients. Here, for the first time, we show that S100A14 and HER2 are coexpressed in invasive breast cancer specimens,andthere is a significant correlation between the expression levels of the two proteins by immunohistochemistry. S100A14 and HER2 are colocalized in plasma membrane of breast cancer tissue cells and breast cancer cell lines BT474 and SK-BR3. We demonstrate that S100A14 binds directly to HER2 by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. Further study shows that residues 956–1154 of the HER2 intracellular domain and residue 83 of S100A14 are essential for the two proteins binding.Moreover,we observe a decrease of HER2 phosphorylation, downstream signaling, and HER2-stimulated cell proliferation in S100A14-silenced MCF-7, BT474, and SK-BR3 cells. Our findings suggest that S100A14 functions as a modulator of HER2 signaling and provide mechanistic evidence for its role in breast cancer progression.
|Hypoxia changes the expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) system in human hearts and cultured cardiomyocytes.|
Munk, M; Memon, AA; Goetze, JP; Nielsen, LB; Nexo, E; Sorensen, BS
PloS one 7 e40243 2012
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors HER2 and HER4 and the ligands HB-EGF and NRG1 are crucial for heart development. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of the complete EGF system in relation to hypoxia of the heart.We examined the mRNA expression by real time PCR of the 4 receptors and 12 ligands from the EGF-system in paired normoxic and hypoxic biopsies isolated from human hearts during coronary artery bypass operation. Compared to normoxic biopsies, hypoxic samples showed down-regulation of HER2 (P = 0.0005) and NRG1 (both α (P = 0.02) and β (P = 0.03) isoforms). In contrast, HB-EGF (P = 0.0008), NRG2β (P = 0.01) and EGFR (P = 0.02) were up-regulated. As HER2 is essential for heart development and we find its expression reduced under hypoxia we investigated the effect of HER2 inhibition in hypoxic HL-1 cardiomyocytes by treatment with trastuzumab (20 nM). This resulted in inhibition of cardiomyocyte proliferation, but interestingly only in hypoxic cells. Co-treatment of HL-1 cells with HB-EGF (10 nM) but not with NRG-1 (5 ng/ml) rescued the cardiomyocytes from HER2 inhibition. HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia revealed nuclear translocation of activated MAPK and the activity of this downstream signaling molecule was decreased by HER2 inhibition (20 nM trastuzumab), and re-established by HB-EGF (10 nM).Hypoxia in the human heart alters the expression of the EGF system. Mimicking the HER2 down-regulation seen in the human heart in cultured cardiomyocytes inhibited their proliferation under hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, HB-EGF is induced in the hypoxic human hearts, and rescues hypoxic cardiomyocytes from the effect of HER2 inhibition in the in vitro model. The results have implications for future treatment strategies of patients with ischemic heart disease.
|Bay846, a new irreversible small molecule inhibitor of EGFR and Her2, is highly effective against malignant brain tumor models.|
Longo, Sharon L, et al.
Invest New Drugs, 30: 2161-72 (2012) 2012
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is aberrantly activated in tumors and plays a key role in promoting tumor growth. Small molecule inhibitors which bind reversibly to EGFR have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Thus, there is a continued need to develop novel EGFR inhibitors with improved anti-tumor activity. Bay846 is a newly developed small molecule inhibitor that binds irreversibly to the tyrosine kinase domains of EGFR and Her2. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Bay846 was tested using a panel of nine human malignant brain tumor (glioma) models. Lapatinib, a reversible inhibitor of EGFR and Her2, was included for comparison. Six glioma cell lines were sensitive to Bay846 treatment. Bay846 strongly suppressed tumor cell growth in vitro by inducing cell lysis/death rather than cell cycle arrest. Consistent with this, Bay846 had potent anti-tumor activity which led to regressions in tumor size. The active, phosphorylated form of EGFR was reduced by Bay846 treatment in vitro and in tumors. Importantly, the efficacy of Bay846 was significantly greater than lapatinib in all assays. Bay846-sensitivity was associated with expression of a wild-type PTEN in conjunction with high levels of an oncogenic EGFR variant (A289V or EGFRvIII). These studies demonstrate that targeting the EGFR pathway with the irreversible inhibitor Bay846 has great potential to increase the efficacy of this cancer therapy.
|Neuregulin-1β regulation of embryonic endothelial progenitor cell survival.|
Safa, RN; Peng, XY; Pentassuglia, L; Lim, CC; Lamparter, M; Silverstein, C; Walker, J; Chen, B; Geisberg, C; Hatzopoulos, AK; Sawyer, DB
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 300 H1311-9 2011
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized into the vascular space and home to damaged tissues, where they promote repair in part through a process of angiogenesis. Neuregulins (NRGs) are ligands in the epidermal growth factor family that signal through type I receptor tyrosine kinases in the erbB family (erbB2, erbB3, and erbB4) and regulate endothelial cell biology, promoting angiogenesis. Stimuli such as ischemia and exercise that promote EPC mobilization also induce cleavage and release of transmembrane NRG from cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). We hypothesized that NRG/erbB signaling may regulate EPC biology. Using an embryonic (e)EPC cell line that homes to and repairs injured myocardium, we were able to detect erbB2 and erbB3 transcripts. Identical receptor expression was found in EPCs isolated from rat bone marrow and human whole blood. NRG treatment of eEPCs induces phosphorylation of kinases including Akt, GSK-3β, and Erk1/2 and the nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of β-catenin. NRG does not induce eEPC proliferation or migration but does protect eEPCs against serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. These results suggest a role for tissue-derived NRG in the regulation of EPC survival.
|Different changes in protein and phosphoprotein levels result from serum starvation of high-grade glioma and adenocarcinoma cell lines.|
Levin, VA; Panchabhai, SC; Shen, L; Kornblau, SM; Qiu, Y; Baggerly, KA
Journal of proteome research 9 179-91 2010
Tumor cells undergoing serum starvation in vitro partially mimic metabolically stressed cells trying to adjust to a changed environment in vivo by inducing signal transduction and gene expression so that the tumor continues to grow. Our hypothesis is that the changes in protein and phosphoprotein levels after serum starvation may reflect the adapted phenotype of the tumor, which could be targeted for therapy. We used reverse-phase protein microarrays to interrogate five high-grade glioma cell lines and seven adenocarcinoma cell lines for differences in the level of 81 proteins and 25 phosphoproteins. All cell lines were studied in the well-fed condition of growth with 10% FBS and the starved condition of 0.5% FBS. Protein expression levels were normalized to beta-actin and trichotomized as increased (+1, upper 75th quartile), decreased (-1, lowest 25th quartile), or unchanged (0, others) to focus on the patterns of the biggest (and hopefully most robust) changes in protein and phosphoprotein levels. We examined these trichotomized values to better understand Starved-Fed differences among the cell lines and thereby gain better/clearer insight into the effects of serum starvation on potential cellular responses. In general, the expression of proteins and phosphoproteins 24 h after FBS starvation increased more often in glioma lines than in adenocarcinoma lines, which appeared to have fewer increased protein scores and more decreased scores. Many of the proteins increased in gliomas were downstream targets of the PTEN-PI-3 kinase-AKT, EGFR-MAPK-Stat, and transcription activator-polyamine signaling pathways. In adenocarcinomas, the expression of proteins and phosphoproteins generally increased in apoptosis pathways, while there were minor fluctuations in the other pathways above. Contrawise, gliomas become resistant to apoptosis after 24 h of serum starvation and upregulate transcription activators and polyamines more so than adenocarciomas.
|A Technical Assessment of the Utility of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for the Study of the Functional Proteome in Non-microdissected Human Breast Cancers.|
Hennessy, BT; Lu, Y; Gonzalez-Angulo, AM; Carey, MS; Myhre, S; Ju, Z; Davies, MA; Liu, W; Coombes, K; Meric-Bernstam, F; Bedrosian, I; McGahren, M; Agarwal, R; Zhang, F; Overgaard, J; Alsner, J; Neve, RM; Kuo, WL; Gray, JW; Borresen-Dale, AL; Mills, GB
Clinical proteomics 6 129-51 2010
The lack of large panels of validated antibodies, tissue handling variability, and intratumoral heterogeneity potentially hamper comprehensive study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to address these concerns and to demonstrate clinical utility for the functional analysis of proteins in non-microdissected breast tumors using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA).Herein, 82 antibodies that recognize kinase and steroid signaling proteins and effectors were validated for RPPA. Intraslide and interslide coefficients of variability were less than 15%. Multiple sites in non-microdissected breast tumors were analyzed using RPPA after intervals of up to 24 h on the benchtop at room temperature following surgical resection.Twenty-one of 82 total and phosphoproteins demonstrated time-dependent instability at room temperature with most variability occurring at later time points between 6 and 24 h. However, the 82-protein functional proteomic "fingerprint" was robust in most tumors even when maintained at room temperature for 24 h before freezing. In repeat samples from each tumor, intratumoral protein levels were markedly less variable than intertumoral levels. Indeed, an independent analysis of prognostic biomarkers in tissue from multiple tumor sites accurately and reproducibly predicted patient outcomes. Significant correlations were observed between RPPA and immunohistochemistry. However, RPPA demonstrated a superior dynamic range. Classification of 128 breast cancers using RPPA identified six subgroups with markedly different patient outcomes that demonstrated a significant correlation with breast cancer subtypes identified by transcriptional profiling.Thus, the robustness of RPPA and stability of the functional proteomic "fingerprint" facilitate the study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected breast tumors.Full Text Article
|Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB1 attenuates inhibitory synaptic development in mouse dentate gyrus.|
Yuichi Abe,Hiroyuki Nawa,Hisaaki Namba
Neuroscience research 63 2009
Ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB1, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), negatively regulate synaptic maturation of GABAergic neurons in the developing neocortex. Here, we evaluated the effects of these ligands in vivo on developing inhibitory neurons in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal slices were prepared from postnatal mice repeatedly challenged with EGF or from transgenic mice overexpressing TGFalpha. We monitored paired pulse depression of field population spikes evoked by perforant path stimulation to estimate the strength of local inhibition. Administration of EGF increased the paired pulse ratio, suggesting a reduction of inhibitory strength. A similar reduction was observed in TGFalpha transgenic mice. Monitoring miniature and evoked synaptic currents, we estimated EGF effects on synaptic input and output of GABAergic neurons. EGF treatment diminished the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the GABAergic neurons without affecting their miniature EPSCs. EGF also affected output strength of the GABAergic neurons: The frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and the evoked IPSC/evoked EPSC ratio were decreased in granule cells. In parallel, EGF down-regulated the protein level of vesicular GABA transporter. Thus, ErbB1 ligands influence GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the developing dentate gyrus.
|Impaired PTPN13 phosphatase activity in spontaneous or HPV-induced squamous cell carcinomas potentiates oncogene signaling through the MAP kinase pathway.|
Hoover, AC; Strand, GL; Nowicki, PN; Anderson, ME; Vermeer, PD; Klingelhutz, AJ; Bossler, AD; Pottala, JV; Hendriks, WJ; Lee, JH
Oncogene 28 3960-70 2009
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a causative factor in over 90% of cervical and 25% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). The C terminus of the high-risk HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein physically associates with and degrades a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN13), and PTPN13 loss synergizes with H-Ras(V12) or ErbB2 for invasive growth in vivo. Oral keratinocytes that have lost PTPN13 and express H-Ras(V12) or ErbB2 show enhanced Ras/RAF/MEK/Erk signaling. In co-transfection studies, wild-type PTPN13 inhibited Ras/RAF/MEK/Erk signaling in HEK 293 cells that overexpress ErbB2, EGFR or H-Ras(V12), whereas an enzymatically inactive PTPN13 did not. Twenty percent of HPV-negative HNSCCs had PTPN13 phosphatase mutations that did not inhibit Ras/RAF/MEK/Erk signaling. Inhibition of Ras/RAF/MEK/Erk signaling using MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked anchorage-independent growth in cells lacking PTPN13. These findings show that PTPN13 phosphatase activity has a physiologically significant role in regulating MAP kinase signaling.
|Heregulin beta1 drives gefitinib-resistant growth and invasion in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.|
Hutcheson, IR; Knowlden, JM; Hiscox, SE; Barrow, D; Gee, JM; Robertson, JF; Ellis, IO; Nicholson, RI
Breast cancer research : BCR 9 R50 2007
Resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapies is an emerging clinical problem. The efficacy of anti-EGFR therapies can be influenced by the presence of heregulins (HRGs), which can bind erbB3/4 receptors and can activate alternative signalling pathways. In the present study we have examined whether HRG signalling can circumvent EGFR blockade in an EGFR-positive tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (Tam-R) breast cancer cell line.Tam-R cells, incubated with the selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib ('Iressa', ZD1839), were exposed to HRGbeta1 and the effects on erbB receptor dimerization profiles and on activation of associated downstream signalling components were assessed by immunoprecipitation, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The effects of HRGbeta1 on gefitinib-treated Tam-R cell growth and invasion were also examined, and HRGbeta1 expression levels were assessed in breast cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to address the potential clinical relevance of such a resistance mechanism.In Tam-R cells, HRGbeta1 promoted erbB3/erbB2 and erbB3/EGFR heterodimerization, promoted ERK1/2 and AKT pathway activation and increased cell proliferation and invasion. Gefitinib prevented HRGbeta1-driven erbB3/EGFR heterodimerization, ERK1/2 activation and Tam-R cell proliferation, but HRGbeta1-driven erbB3/erbB2 heterodimerization, AKT activation and Tam-R cell invasion were maintained. A combination of gefitinib and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 effectively blocked HRGbeta1-mediated intracellular signalling activity, growth and invasion in Tam-R cells. Similarly, targeting erbB2 with trastuzumab in combination with gefitinib in Tam-R cells reduced HRGbeta1-induced erbB2 and ERK1/2 activity; however, HRGbeta1-driven AKT activity and cell growth were maintained while cell invasion was significantly enhanced with this combination. In clinical tissue all samples demonstrated cytoplasmic tumour epithelial HRGbeta1 protein staining, with expression correlating with EGFR positivity and activation of both AKT and ERK1/2.HRGbeta1 can overcome the inhibitory effects of gefitinib on cell growth and invasion in Tam-R cells through promotion of erbB3/erbB2 heterodimerization and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signalling pathway. This may have implications for the effectiveness of anti-EGFR therapies in breast cancer as HRGbeta1 is enriched in many EGFR-positive breast tumours.Full Text Article
|Notch signaling is essential for ventricular chamber development.|
Grego-Bessa, J; Luna-Zurita, L; del Monte, G; Bolós, V; Melgar, P; Arandilla, A; Garratt, AN; Zang, H; Mukouyama, YS; Chen, H; Shou, W; Ballestar, E; Esteller, M; Rojas, A; Pérez-Pomares, JM; de la Pompa, JL
Developmental cell 12 415-29 2007
Ventricular chamber morphogenesis, first manifested by trabeculae formation, is crucial for cardiac function and embryonic viability and depends on cellular interactions between the endocardium and myocardium. We show that ventricular Notch1 activity is highest at presumptive trabecular endocardium. RBPJk and Notch1 mutants show impaired trabeculation and marker expression, attenuated EphrinB2, NRG1, and BMP10 expression and signaling, and decreased myocardial proliferation. Functional and molecular analyses show that Notch inhibition prevents EphrinB2 expression, and that EphrinB2 is a direct Notch target acting upstream of NRG1 in the ventricles. However, BMP10 levels are found to be independent of both EphrinB2 and NRG1 during trabeculation. Accordingly, exogenous BMP10 rescues the myocardial proliferative defect of in vitro-cultured RBPJk mutants, while exogenous NRG1 rescues differentiation in parallel. We suggest that during trabeculation Notch independently regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation, two exquisitely balanced processes whose perturbation may result in congenital heart disease.
|Advancing cancer research: From hallmarks & biomarkers to tumor microenvironment progression|