Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IP, WB, DB, ChIP||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Intracellular α-ketoglutarate maintains the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.|
Carey, BW; Finley, LW; Cross, JR; Allis, CD; Thompson, CB
Nature 518 413-6 2015
The role of cellular metabolism in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation remains poorly understood. For example, most mammalian cells cannot proliferate without exogenous glutamine supplementation even though glutamine is a non-essential amino acid. Here we show that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells grown under conditions that maintain naive pluripotency are capable of proliferation in the absence of exogenous glutamine. Despite this, ES cells consume high levels of exogenous glutamine when the metabolite is available. In comparison to more differentiated cells, naive ES cells utilize both glucose and glutamine catabolism to maintain a high level of intracellular α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Consequently, naive ES cells exhibit an elevated αKG to succinate ratio that promotes histone/DNA demethylation and maintains pluripotency. Direct manipulation of the intracellular αKG/succinate ratio is sufficient to regulate multiple chromatin modifications, including H3K27me3 and ten-eleven translocation (Tet)-dependent DNA demethylation, which contribute to the regulation of pluripotency-associated gene expression. In vitro, supplementation with cell-permeable αKG directly supports ES-cell self-renewal while cell-permeable succinate promotes differentiation. This work reveals that intracellular αKG/succinate levels can contribute to the maintenance of cellular identity and have a mechanistic role in the transcriptional and epigenetic state of stem cells.
|Deep sequencing and de novo assembly of the mouse oocyte transcriptome define the contribution of transcription to the DNA methylation landscape.|
Veselovska, L; Smallwood, SA; Saadeh, H; Stewart, KR; Krueger, F; Maupetit-Méhouas, S; Arnaud, P; Tomizawa, S; Andrews, S; Kelsey, G
Genome biology 16 209 2015
Previously, a role was demonstrated for transcription in the acquisition of DNA methylation at imprinted control regions in oocytes. Definition of the oocyte DNA methylome by whole genome approaches revealed that the majority of methylated CpG islands are intragenic and gene bodies are hypermethylated. Yet, the mechanisms by which transcription regulates DNA methylation in oocytes remain unclear. Here, we systematically test the link between transcription and the methylome.We perform deep RNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly at different stages of mouse oogenesis. This reveals thousands of novel non-annotated genes, as well as alternative promoters, for approximately 10 % of reference genes expressed in oocytes. In addition, a large fraction of novel promoters coincide with MaLR and ERVK transposable elements. Integration with our transcriptome assembly reveals that transcription correlates accurately with DNA methylation and accounts for approximately 85-90 % of the methylome. We generate a mouse model in which transcription across the Zac1/Plagl1 locus is abrogated in oocytes, resulting in failure of DNA methylation establishment at all CpGs of this locus. ChIP analysis in oocytes reveals H3K4me2 enrichment at the Zac1 imprinted control region when transcription is ablated, establishing a connection between transcription and chromatin remodeling at CpG islands by histone demethylases.By precisely defining the mouse oocyte transcriptome, this work not only highlights transcription as a cornerstone of DNA methylation establishment in female germ cells, but also provides an important resource for developmental biology research.
|IL-22(+)CD4(+) T cells promote colorectal cancer stemness via STAT3 transcription factor activation and induction of the methyltransferase DOT1L.|
Kryczek, I; Lin, Y; Nagarsheth, N; Peng, D; Zhao, L; Zhao, E; Vatan, L; Szeliga, W; Dou, Y; Owens, S; Zgodzinski, W; Majewski, M; Wallner, G; Fang, J; Huang, E; Zou, W
Immunity 40 772-84 2014
Little is known about how the immune system impacts human colorectal cancer invasiveness and stemness. Here we detected interleukin-22 (IL-22) in patient colorectal cancer tissues that was produced predominantly by CD4(+) T cells. In a mouse model, migration of these cells into the colon cancer microenvironment required the chemokine receptor CCR6 and its ligand CCL20. IL-22 acted on cancer cells to promote activation of the transcription factor STAT3 and expression of the histone 3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methytransferase DOT1L. The DOT1L complex induced the core stem cell genes NANOG, SOX2, and Pou5F1, resulting in increased cancer stemness and tumorigenic potential. Furthermore, high DOT1L expression and H3K79me2 in colorectal cancer tissues was a predictor of poor patient survival. Thus, IL-22(+) cells promote colon cancer stemness via regulation of stemness genes that negatively affects patient outcome. Efforts to target this network might be a strategy in treating colorectal cancer patients.
|Hypermethylation of the alternative AWT1 promoter in hematological malignancies is a highly specific marker for acute myeloid leukemias despite high expression levels.|
Guillaumet-Adkins, A; Richter, J; Odero, MD; Sandoval, J; Agirre, X; Catala, A; Esteller, M; Prósper, F; Calasanz, MJ; Buño, I; Kwon, M; Court, F; Siebert, R; Monk, D
Journal of hematology & oncology 7 4 2014
Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) is over-expressed in numerous cancers with respect to normal cells, and has either a tumor suppressor or oncogenic role depending on cellular context. This gene is associated with numerous alternatively spliced transcripts, which initiate from two different unique first exons within the WT1 and the alternative (A)WT1 promoter intervals. Within the hematological system, WT1 expression is restricted to CD34+/CD38- cells and is undetectable after differentiation. Detectable expression of this gene is an excellent marker for minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the underlying epigenetic alterations are unknown.To determine the changes in the underlying epigenetic landscape responsible for this expression, we characterized expression, DNA methylation and histone modification profiles in 28 hematological cancer cell lines and confirmed the methylation signature in 356 cytogenetically well-characterized primary hematological malignancies.Despite high expression of WT1 and AWT1 transcripts in AML-derived cell lines, we observe robust hypermethylation of the AWT1 promoter and an epigenetic switch from a permissive to repressive chromatin structure between normal cells and AML cell lines. Subsequent methylation analysis in our primary leukemia and lymphoma cohort revealed that the epigenetic signature identified in cell lines is specific to myeloid-lineage malignancies, irrespective of underlying mutational status or translocation. In addition to being a highly specific marker for AML diagnosis (positive predictive value 100%; sensitivity 86.1%; negative predictive value 89.4%), we show that AWT1 hypermethylation also discriminates patients that relapse from those achieving complete remission after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with similar efficiency to WT1 expression profiling.We describe a methylation signature of the AWT1 promoter CpG island that is a promising marker for classifying myeloid-derived leukemias. In addition AWT1 hypermethylation is ideally suited to monitor the recurrence of disease during remission in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transfer.
|Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B cells induces global chromatin changes independent to the acquisition of proliferation.|
Hernando, H; Islam, AB; Rodríguez-Ubreva, J; Forné, I; Ciudad, L; Imhof, A; Shannon-Lowe, C; Ballestar, E
Nucleic acids research 42 249-63 2014
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects and transforms human primary B cells inducing indefinite proliferation. To investigate the potential participation of chromatin mechanisms during the EBV-mediated transformation of resting B cells we performed an analysis of global changes in histone modifications. We observed a remarkable decrease and redistribution of heterochromatin marks including H4K20me3, H3K27me3 and H3K9me3. Loss of H4K20me3 and H3K9me3 occurred at constitutive heterochromatin repeats. For H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, comparison of ChIP-seq data revealed a decrease in these marks in thousands of genes, including clusters of HOX and ZNF genes, respectively. Moreover, DNase-seq data comparison between resting and EBV-transformed B cells revealed increased endonuclease accessibility in thousands of genomic sites. We observed that both loss of H3K27me3 and increased accessibility are associated with transcriptional activation. These changes only occurred in B cells transformed with EBV and not in those stimulated to proliferate with CD40L/IL-4, despite their similarities in the cell pathways involved and proliferation rates. In fact, B cells infected with EBNA-2 deficient EBV, which have much lower proliferation rates, displayed similar decreases for heterochromatic histone marks. Our study describes a novel phenomenon related to transformation of B cells, and highlights its independence of the pure acquisition of proliferation.
|Histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed form drive a cellular senescence programme.|
Duarte, LF; Young, AR; Wang, Z; Wu, HA; Panda, T; Kou, Y; Kapoor, A; Hasson, D; Mills, NR; Ma'ayan, A; Narita, M; Bernstein, E
Nature communications 5 5210 2014
The process of cellular senescence generates a repressive chromatin environment, however, the role of histone variants and histone proteolytic cleavage in senescence remains unclear. Here, using models of oncogene-induced and replicative senescence, we report novel histone H3 tail cleavage events mediated by the protease Cathepsin L. We find that cleaved forms of H3 are nucleosomal and the histone variant H3.3 is the preferred cleaved form of H3. Ectopic expression of H3.3 and its cleavage product (H3.3cs1), which lacks the first 21 amino acids of the H3 tail, is sufficient to induce senescence. Further, H3.3cs1 chromatin incorporation is mediated by the HUCA histone chaperone complex. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that H3.3cs1 facilitates transcriptional silencing of cell cycle regulators including RB/E2F target genes, likely via the permanent removal of H3K4me3. Collectively, our study identifies histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed forms as key regulators of cellular senescence.
|Cerebellar oxidative DNA damage and altered DNA methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism and similarities with human post mortem cerebellum.|
Shpyleva, S; Ivanovsky, S; de Conti, A; Melnyk, S; Tryndyak, V; Beland, FA; James, SJ; Pogribny, IP
PloS one 9 e113712 2014
The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b). Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1) and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism.
|Suv4-20h2 mediates chromatin compaction and is important for cohesin recruitment to heterochromatin.|
Hahn, M; Dambacher, S; Dulev, S; Kuznetsova, AY; Eck, S; Wörz, S; Sadic, D; Schulte, M; Mallm, JP; Maiser, A; Debs, P; von Melchner, H; Leonhardt, H; Schermelleh, L; Rohr, K; Rippe, K; Storchova, Z; Schotta, G
Genes & development 27 859-72 2013
Cohesin plays an important role in chromatid cohesion and has additional functions in higher-order chromatin organization and in transcriptional regulation. The binding of cohesin to euchromatic regions is largely mediated by CTCF or the mediator complex. However, it is currently unknown how cohesin is recruited to pericentric heterochromatin in mammalian cells. Here we define the histone methyltransferase Suv4-20h2 as a major structural constituent of heterochromatin that mediates chromatin compaction and cohesin recruitment. Suv4-20h2 stably associates with pericentric heterochromatin through synergistic interactions with multiple heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) molecules, resulting in compaction of heterochromatic regions. Suv4-20h mutant cells display an overall reduced chromatin compaction and an altered chromocenter organization in interphase referred to as "chromocenter scattering." We found that Suv4-20h-deficient cells display chromosome segregation defects during mitosis that coincide with reduced sister chromatid cohesion. Notably, cohesin subunits interact with Suv4-20h2 both in vitro and in vivo. This interaction is necessary for cohesin binding to heterochromatin, as Suv4-20h mutant cells display substantially reduced cohesin levels at pericentric heterochromatin. This defect is most prominent in G0-phase cells, where cohesin is virtually lost from heterochromatin, suggesting that Suv4-20h2 is involved in the initial loading or maintenance of cohesion subunits. In summary, our data provide the first compelling evidence that Suv4-20h2 plays essential roles in regulating nuclear architecture and ensuring proper chromosome segregation.
|Distinctive patterns of epigenetic marks are associated with promoter regions of mouse LINE-1 and LTR retrotransposons.|
Mobile DNA 4 27 2013
The long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and the non-LTR retrotransposons (LINE-1 or L1) make up more than one-third of the mouse genome. Because of their abundance, the retrotransposons are the major players in genomic structure and function. While much attention has been focused on the biology of retrotransposons, little is known about the chromatin structure of these elements or the potential role of epigenetic marks on the regulation of retrotransposon expression.Using sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we analyzed the cohabitation of several post-translational histone modifications in the promoter regions of mouse L1 and LTR retrotransposons. We show here that the variant histone H2A.Z selectively present in L1 promoters. Notably, H2A.Z and trimethylated histone H3 (H3K9me3) co-localize in the same genomic location of the L1 promoter along with heterochromatin-binding protein HP1α. In contrast, MmERV and intracisternal A-particle (IAP) classes of LTR promoters are enriched with core histone H2A and heterochromatic trimethylated histone H4 (H4K20me3). These distinctive patterns of chromatin modifications are relatively consistent irrespective of cell type.Chromatin structure regulates the expression of retrotransposons. LINE-1 elements are associated with H2A.Z and HP1α-containing constitutive heterochromatin, while the LTR elements are enriched with H2A and the H4K20me3-type of facultative heterochromatin. Our findings demonstrate that different epigenetic mechanisms operate in the mouse genome to silence different classes of retrotransposons.
|Naive pluripotency is associated with global DNA hypomethylation.|
Leitch, HG; McEwen, KR; Turp, A; Encheva, V; Carroll, T; Grabole, N; Mansfield, W; Nashun, B; Knezovich, JG; Smith, A; Surani, MA; Hajkova, P
Nature structural & molecular biology 20 311-6 2013
Naive pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and embryonic germ cells (EGCs) are derived from the preimplantation epiblast and primordial germ cells (PGCs), respectively. We investigated whether differences exist between ESCs and EGCs, in view of their distinct developmental origins. PGCs are programmed to undergo global DNA demethylation; however, we find that EGCs and ESCs exhibit equivalent global DNA methylation levels. Inhibition of MEK and Gsk3b by 2i conditions leads to pronounced reduction in DNA methylation in both cell types. This is driven by Prdm14 and is associated with downregulation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. However, genomic imprints are maintained in 2i, and we report derivation of EGCs with intact genomic imprints. Collectively, our findings establish that culture in 2i instills a naive pluripotent state with a distinctive epigenetic configuration that parallels molecular features observed in both the preimplantation epiblast and nascent PGCs.
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