Key Spec Table
|Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Application||The APO-DIRECT Kit is a single-step staining method for labeling DNA breaks to detect apoptotic cells by flow cytometry.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 assays|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Splicing factor SRSF3 is crucial for hepatocyte differentiation and metabolic function.|
Sen, Supriya, et al.
Nat Commun, 4: 1336 (2013) 2013
SR family RNA binding proteins regulate splicing of nascent RNAs in vitro but their physiological role in vivo is largely unexplored, as genetic deletion of many SR protein genes results in embryonic lethality. Here we show that SRSF3HKO mice carrying a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Srsf3 (homologous to human SRSF3/SRp20) have a disrupted hepatic architecture and show pre- and postnatal growth retardation. SRSF3HKO mice exhibit impaired hepatocyte maturation with alterations in glucose and lipid homeostasis characterized by reduced glycogen storage, fasting hypoglycemia, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced cholesterol synthesis. We identify various splicing alterations in the SRSF3HKO liver that explain the in vivo phenotype. In particular, loss of SRSF3 causes aberrant splicing of Hnf1α, Ern1, Hmgcs1, Dhcr7 and Scap genes, which are critical regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study provides the first evidence for a SRSF3-driven genetic programme required for morphological and functional differentiation of hepatocytes that may have relevance for human liver disease and metabolic dysregulation.
|High glucose induces suppression of insulin signalling and apoptosis via upregulation of endogenous IL-1beta and suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 in mouse pancreatic beta cells.|
Venieratos, Panagiotis D, et al.
Cellular signalling, (2010) 2010
Chronic hyperglycemia and inflammatory cytokines disrupt and/or attenuate signal transduction pathways that promote normal beta-cell survival, leading to the destruction of endocrine pancreas in type 2 diabetes. There is convincing evidence that autocrine insulin signalling exerts protective anti-apoptotic effects on beta cells. Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) were induced by several cytokines and inhibit insulin-initiated signal transduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high glucose can influence endogenous interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and SOCS expression thus affecting insulin signalling and survival in insulin-producing mouse pancreatic beta cells (betaTC-6). Results showed that prolonged exposure of betaTC-6 cells to increased glucose concentrations resulted in significant inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) as well as PI3-kinase activation. These changes were accompanied by impaired activation of the anti-apoptotic signalling protein Akt and annulment of Akt-mediated suppression of the Forkhead family of transcription factors (FoxO) activation. Glucose-induced attenuation of IRS-2/Akt-mediated signalling was associated with increased IL-1beta expression. Enhanced endogenous IL-1beta specifically induced mRNA and protein expression of SOCS-1 in betaTC-6 cells. Inhibition of SOCS-1 expression by SOCS-1-specific small interfering RNA restored IRS-2/PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation suppressed by high glucose. The upregulation of endogenous cytokine signalling and FoxO activation were accompanied by enhanced caspase-3 activation and increased susceptibility of cells to apoptosis. These results indicated that glucose-induced endogenous IL-1beta expression increased betaTC-6 cells apoptosis by inhibiting, at least in part, IRS-2/Akt-mediated signalling through SOCS-1 upregulation.
|The protease-mediated nucleus shuttles of subnanometer gold quantum dots for real-time monitoring of apoptotic cell death.|
Shu-Yi Lin,Nai-Tzu Chen,Shu-Pin Sun,Jerry C Chang,Yu-Chao Wang,Chung-Shi Yang,Leu-Wei Lo
Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 2010
Subnanometer photoluminescent gold quantum dots (GQDs) are functionalized with a peptide moiety that contains both nuclear export signal (NES) and nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences. By taking advantage of its small size and great photostability, the functionalized GQDs are used to mimic the actions of nucleus shuttle proteins, especially of those activated during cell apoptotic death, to work as protease-mediated cytoplasm-nucleus shuttles for dynamic monitoring of apoptosis. The resulting construct demonstrates activation of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) of cells, for bidirectional transport between nucleus and cytoplasm. A caspase-3 recognition sequence (DEVD), placed within the NLS/NES peptide, serves as a proteolytic site for activated caspase-3. Upon the induction of apoptosis, the activated caspase-3 cleaves the functional peptide on GQDs resulting in changes of subcellular distribution of GQDs. Such changes can be quantified as a function of time, by the ratios of GQDs photoluminescence in nucleus to that in cytoplasm. As such, the NES-linker-DEVD-linker-NLS peptide enables the GQDs to function as molecular probes for the real-time monitoring of cellular apoptosis.
|Apo-Direct TUNEL Assay Kit|