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|Effect of selegiline on neural stem cells differentiation: a possible role for neurotrophic factors.|
Hassanzadeh, K; Nikzaban, M; Moloudi, MR; Izadpanah, E
Iranian journal of basic medical sciences 18 549-54 2015
The stimulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiation into neurons has attracted great attention in management of neurodegenerative disease and traumatic brain injury. It has been reported that selegiline could enhance the morphologic differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the effects of selegiline on NSCs differentiation with focus on the role of neurotrophic factor gene expression.The NSCs were isolated from lateral ventricle of C57 mice brain. The cells were exposed to selegiline in nano to micromolar concentrations for 24 hr or 72 hr. In order to assay the effect of selegiline on NSCs differentiation into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, immunocytochemical techniques were utilized. Samples were exposed to specific antibodies against neurons (β tubulin), astrocytes (GFAP) and oligodendrocytes (OSP). The expression of BDNF, NGF and NT3 genes was investigated using Real-Time PCR.Our findings revealed that selegiline increased NSCs differentiation into neurons at 10(-7) and 10(-8) M and decreased the differentiation into astrocytes at 10(-9), while oligodendrocyte did not significantly change in any of the used concentrations. In addition data analyses showed that selegiline increased BDNF, NGF and NT3 gene expression at 24 hr, but did not change them in the other time of exposure (72 hr) except 10(-7) M concentration of selegiline, which increased NT3 expression.Our results indicate selegiline induced the differentiation of NSCs into neurons and in this context the role of neurotrophic factors is important and should be considered.
|Simultaneous downregulation of KLF5 and Fli1 is a key feature underlying systemic sclerosis.|
Noda, S; Asano, Y; Nishimura, S; Taniguchi, T; Fujiu, K; Manabe, I; Nakamura, K; Yamashita, T; Saigusa, R; Akamata, K; Takahashi, T; Ichimura, Y; Toyama, T; Tsuruta, D; Trojanowska, M; Nagai, R; Sato, S
Nature communications 5 5797 2014
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is manifested by fibrosis, vasculopathy and immune dysregulation. So far, a unifying hypothesis underpinning these pathological events remains unknown. Given that SSc is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors, we focus on the two transcription factors, which modulate the fibrotic reaction and are epigenetically suppressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts, Friend leukaemia integration 1 (Fli1) and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5). In addition to the Fli1 silencing-dependent collagen induction, the simultaneous knockdown of Fli1 and KLF5 synergistically enhances expression of connective tissue growth factor. Notably, mice with double heterozygous deficiency of Klf5 and Fli1 mimicking the epigenetic phenotype of SSc skin spontaneously recapitulate all the three features of SSc, including fibrosis and vasculopathy of the skin and lung, B-cell activation and autoantibody production. These studies implicate the epigenetic downregulation of Fli1 and KLF5 as a central event triggering the pathogenic triad of SSc.
|Placentation and fetal membrane development in the South American coati, Nasua nasua (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae).|
Favaron, PO; Morini, JC; Mess, AM; Miglino, MA; Ambrósio, CE
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 12 57 2014
Placental research in carnivores has concentrated on domestic species, which have zonary, labyrinthine placentas with an endotheliochorial barrier. Although the coati, Nasua nasua, is a widely distributed species in South America, data on the development of the placenta and the fetal membranes in this species are very sparse.Four placentas from mid-gestation to near term were collected from wild individuals and were investigated based on gross morphology, histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The available data support the concept that the ancestral condition of placentation in carnivores is phylogenetically characterized by a zonary and labyrinthine placental type with an endotheliochorial fetomaternal barrier, comprising extended epitheliochorial and haemochorial zones, such as hemophagous organs for iron supply and histiotrophe uptake and a yolk sac placenta.Because of the foundational mechanisms that lead to the considerable complexity of fetomaternal contact zones in carnivores have not been studied, carnivores are interesting animal models for interhaemal barrier differentiation.
|Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys.|
Nemati, SN; Jabbari, R; Hajinasrollah, M; Zare Mehrjerdi, N; Azizi, H; Hemmesi, K; Moghiminasr, R; Azhdari, Z; Talebi, A; Mohitmafi, S; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, A; Sharifi, G; Baharvand, H; Rezaee, O; Kiani, S
Cell journal 16 117-30 2014
Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model.In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months.Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based on Tarlov's scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys.Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation.
|Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra).|
Mess, AM; Favaron, PO; Pfarrer, C; Osmann, C; Melo, AP; Rodrigues, RF; Ambrósio, CE; Bevilacqua, E; Miglino, MA
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 10 102 2012
Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context.Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy.Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occurred near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells.Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans.
|Placentation in Sigmodontinae: a rodent taxon native to South America.|
Favaron, PO; Carter, AM; Ambrósio, CE; Morini, AC; Mess, AM; de Oliveira, MF; Miglino, MA
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 9 55 2011
Sigmodontinae, known as "New World rats and mice," is a large subfamily of Cricetidae for which we herein provide the first comprehensive investigation of the placenta.Placentas of various gestational ages ranging from early pregnancy to near term were obtained for five genera, i.e. Necromys, Euryoryzomys, Cerradomys, Hylaeamys, and Oligoryzomys. They were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry, a proliferation marker, DBA-lectin staining and transmission electron microscopy.The chorioallantoic placenta was organized in a labyrinthine zone, spongy zone and decidua and an inverted yolk sac persisted until term. The chorioallantoic placenta was hemotrichorial. The interhemal barrier comprised fetal capillary endothelium and three layers of trophoblast, an outermost, cellular layer and two syncytial ones, with interspersed trophoblast giant cells (TGC). In addition, accumulations of TGC occurred below Reichert's membrane. The junctional zone contained syncytial trophoblast, proliferative cellular trophoblast, glycogen cells and TGC that were situated near to the maternal blood channels. In three of the genera, TGC were also accumulated in distinct areas at the placental periphery. PAS-positive glycogen cells derived from the junctional zone invaded the decidua. Abundant maternal uNK cells with positive response to PAS, vimentin and DBA-lectin were found in the decidua. The visceral yolk sac was completely inverted and villous.The general aspect of the fetal membranes in Sigmodontinae resembled that found in other cricetid rodents. Compared to murid rodents there were larger numbers of giant cells and in some genera these were seen to congregate at the periphery of the placental disk. Glycogen cells were found to invade the decidua but we did not identify trophoblast in the walls of the deeper decidual arteries. In contrast these vessels were surrounded by large numbers of uNK cells. This survey of wild-trapped specimens from five genera is a useful starting point for the study of placentation in an important subfamily of South American rodents. We note, however, that some of these rodents can be captive bred and recommend that future studies focus on the study of time dated pregnancies.
|Fcgamma receptors contribute to pyramidal cell death in the mouse hippocampus following local kainic acid injection.|
Suemitsu S, Watanabe M, Yokobayashi E, Usui S, Ishikawa T, Matsumoto Y, Yamada N, Okamoto M, Kuroda S
Neuroscience 166 819-31 Epub 2010 Jan 13 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated the contribution of the gamma subunit of the Fc receptor of IgG (FcRgamma) to neuronal death following ischemic injury and Parkinson's disease. We examined the role of FcRgamma in hippocampal pyramidal cell death induced by kainic acid (KA). FcRgamma-deficient mice (FcRgamma-/-) and their FcRgamma+/+ littermates (wild type, B6) received an injection of KA into the dorsal hippocampus. Pyramidal cell death was quantified 24 and 72 h after the injection. The number of survived pyramidal cells was significantly larger in FcRgamma-/- mice than in B6 mice in both the CA1 and CA3. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent studies detected FcgammaRIIB protein in parvalbumin neurons, whereas FcgammaRIII and FcgammaRI proteins were detected in microglial cells. No activated microglial cells were detected 24 h after the KA injection in FcRgamma-/- mice, whereas many activated microglial cells were present in B6 mice. The production of nitrotyrosine as well as of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins, increased by 16 h after the KA injection in B6 mice. In addition, tissue plasminogen activator and metalloproteinase-2 proteins increased. By contrast, the magnitude of oxidative stress and the increase in protease expression were mild in FcRgamma-/- mice. Co-injection of a neutralizing antibody against FcgammaRll and FcgammaRlll with KA abolished pyramidal cell death and microglial activation. In addition, the neutralizing antibody reduced oxidative stress and expression of proteases. These observations suggested a role for FcgammaRllB in parvalbumin neurons as well as FcRgamma in microglia in pyramidal cell death. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Comparative proteome and transcriptome analyses of embryonic stem cells during embryoid body-based differentiation.|
Ali Fathi,Mohammad Pakzad,Adele Taei,Thore C Brink,Leila Pirhaji,Guifré Ruiz,Mohammad Sharif Tabe Bordbar,Hamid Gourabi,James Adjaye,Hossein Baharvand,Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Proteomics 9 2009
Gene expression analyses of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) will help to uncover or further define signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency. We employed a 2-DE-based proteomics approach to analyze human ESC line, Royan H5, in undifferentiated cells and different stages of spontaneous differentiation (days 3, 6, 12, and 20) by embryoid body formation. Out of 945 proteins reproducibly detected on gels, the expression of 96 spots changed during differentiation. Using MS, 87 ESC-associated proteins were identified including several proteins involved in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, transcription, translation, mRNA processing, and protein folding. Transcriptional changes accompanying differentiation of Royan H5 were also analyzed using microarrays. We developed a comprehensive data set that shows the use of human ESC lines in vitro to mimic gastrulation and organogenesis. Our results showed that proteomics and transcriptomics data are complementary rather than duplicative. Although regulation of many genes during differentiation were observed only at transcript level, modulation of several proteins was revealed only by proteome analysis.
|Chorioallantoic placentation in Galea spixii (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).|
Oliveira, MF; Mess, A; Ambrósio, CE; Dantas, CA; Favaron, PO; Miglino, MA
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 6 39 2008
Placentas of guinea pig-related rodents are appropriate animal models for human placentation because of their striking similarities to those of humans. To optimize the pool of potential models in this context, it is essential to identify the occurrence of characters in close relatives.In this study we first analyzed chorioallantoic placentation in the prea, Galea spixii, as one of the guinea pig's closest relatives. Material was collected from a breeding group at the University of Mossoró, Brazil, including 18 individuals covering an ontogenetic sequence from initial pregnancy to term. Placentas were investigated by means of histology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, cytokeration) and proliferation activity (PCNA).Placentation in Galea is primarily characterized by an apparent regionalization into labyrinth, trophospongium and subplacenta. It also has associated growing processes with clusters of proliferating trophoblast cells at the placental margin, internally directed projections and a second centre of proliferation in the labyrinth. Finally, the subplacenta, which is temporarily supplied in parallel by the maternal and fetal blood systems, served as the center of origin for trophoblast invasion.Placentation in Galea reveals major parallels to the guinea pig and other caviomorphs with respect to the regionalization of the placenta, the associated growing processes, as well as trophoblast invasion. A principal difference compared to the guinea pig occurred in the blood supply of the subplacenta. Characteristics of the invasion and expanding processes indicate that Galea may serve as an additional animal model that is much smaller than the guinea pig and where the subplacenta partly has access to both maternal and fetal blood systems.
|Identification of mouse embryonic stem cell-associated proteins.|
Hossein Baharvand,Ali Fathi,Hamid Gourabi,Sepideh Mollamohammadi,Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Journal of proteome research 7 2008
Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in discovering the molecular mechanisms controlling embryonic stem cells' (ESCs) proliferation and differentiation. Proteome analysis has proven to be an effective approach to comprehensively unravel the regulatory network of differentiation. We applied a two-dimensional electrophoresis based proteomic approach followed by mass spectrometry to analyze the proteome of two mouse ESC lines, Royan B1 and D3, at 0, 6, and 16 days after differentiation initiation. Out of 97 ESC-associated proteins commonly expressed in two ESC lines, 72 proteins were identified using MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The expression pattern of four down-regulated proteins including Hspd1, Hspa8, beta-Actin, and Tpt1 were further confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses in Royan B1 and D3 as well as two other mouse ESC lines, Royan C1 and Royan C4. Differential mRNA expression analysis of 20 genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed a low correlation between mRNA and protein levels during differentiation. We also observed that the mRNA level of Tpt1 increased significantly in differentiating cells, whereas its protein level decreased. Several novel ESC-associated proteins have been presented in this study which warrants further investigation with respect to the etiology of stemness.
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